UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 - Detailed UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 - The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) releases the UPSC Geography 2021 syllabus and mentions it in the official notification. Candidates preparing for the UPSC IAS 2021 exam must go through the detailed syllabus of UPSC Geography 2021 in order to qualify the exam. The Geography is an optional subject and aspirants can check the detailed Paper 1 and 2 of syllabus of UPSC Geography 2021 here, which consists of all the important sections from where the question paper will be based like - Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Geography, Biogeography as well as Perspectives in Human Geography, Population and Settlement Geography, Models, Theories & Laws in Human Geography etc. Aspirants must also know about the exam pattern of UPSC IAS to know about the sections, time duration and stages of the exam. Geography is part of the UPSC IAS 2021 mains syllabus. Check all details related to the UPSC Geography syllabus 2021 here.
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 - Subject Wise
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 for Paper 1 - Physical Geography
Endogenetic and exogenetic forces, factors controlling landform development, Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Origin and evolution of the crust of earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Isostasy; Volcanicity, Earthquakes & Tsunamis; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building, Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development, Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment
Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
Genesis of various soil, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors which influence world distribution of plants and animals; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; agroforestry; Social forestry, Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Influence of man on ecology and environment; Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Global and regional ecological changes & imbalances; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental education and legislation.
Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Atmospheric stability & instability. Air masses and fronto; Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Weather and Climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 for Paper 1 - Human Geography
Models, Theories & Laws in Human Geography
Marxian and demographic transition models; Malthusian,System analysis in Human geography; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Weber’s model of industrial location; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
Population and Settlement Geography
Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Growth and distribution of world population; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Social well-being and quality of life; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Population as social capital. Environmental issues in rural settlements; Types and patterns of rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city & rule of rank size, Sphere of urban influence; Functional classification of towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Sustainable development of cities.
World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade
Perspectives in Human Geography
Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy & dualism; Environmentalism; Radical, behavioural, Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; human and welfare approaches; Human development index (HDI)
Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Concept of a region; Types of regions & methods of regionalisation; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2020 for Paper 2 - Geography of India
Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture & poultry; Agro-climatic zones, Agro-ecological regions; Agricultural regionalisation;
Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Energy crisis
Industrial regionalisation; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism. Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, automobile, chemical and pharmaceutical, cottage and agro-based industries;
State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Geographical basis of Indian federalism; International boundary of India and related issues; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm
Structure and relief; Space relationship of India with its neighbouring countries; Physiographic regions; Drainage system and watersheds; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods & droughts; Natural vegetation, Climatic regions, Soil types and their distributions.
Racial linguistic & ethnic diversities; Historical Perspective of Indian Society; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas & their problems; Growth, distribution and density of population; Cultural regions; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, dependency ratio, work-force, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
Issues related to environmental pollution; Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Population explosion and food security; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
Regional Development and Planning
Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Experience of regional planning in India; Watershed management; Command area development; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories
Transport, Communication and Trade
Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Export processing zones; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
Urban developments; Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Slums and associated problems; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 - Preparation Tips
Candidates preparing for UPSC IAS, must prepare in such a way that they have an upper edge over the competition. Here we are sharing some UPSC IAS preparation tips that will help candidates to score well and qualify for UPSC exam. Check the tips here.
Refer to NCERT books to prepare for Geography only.
Make a perfect IAS study plan to study for Geography and stick with it.
UPSC CSE Geography requires a high-level preparation level as the difficulty level of the exam is of graduation level, hence candidates must start the preparations early.
Solve previous year questions papers of the Geography mains exam to know about the type of questions, difficulty level and question pattern. Also, look for UPSC IAS question papers for Geography and solve mock tests.
Do previous year UPSC IAS exam analysis, to know the cut off trends, sample questions etc and also to work on your weaker subjects.
Best Books to Cover UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021
Aspirants planning to take Geography as their optional subject must also go through the best books of Geography. Check the UPSC Geography 2021 syllabus from the following table below-
UPSC Geography Books for Paper 1
UPSC Geography Books for Paper 2
Agricultural Geography – Majid Husain
A Geography of India -Gopal Singh
Environmental Geography – Savindra Singh
Certificate Physical and Human Geography – Goh Cheng Leong
Human Geography -Majid Husain
Oxford School Atlas – Oxford
Physical Geography in Diagrams -Bunnett
Geography of Population- R.C.Chandna
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 - Detailed UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus
Question: Is Geography a good subject to be taken as optional for UPSC CSE?
Yes, only if you have interest in Geography as a subject, or else it can be difficult.
Question: How to prepare for Geography?
The difficulty level of Geography is of graduation level. The preparation takes a lot of time, candidates must refer to only the best books of UPSC IAS for preparation.
Question: Which is the easiest optional subject for UPSC CSE?
The difficulty and easy level of the subject depends on your interest and likeability. Many candidates pick Sociology, Geography and Public Administration as their optional subjects.
Question: Which is the minimum academic qualification required to apply for UPSC?
To apply for UPSC, aspirants must be a graduate.
Question: Who scored the highest marks in UPSC CSE ever?
It was Anudeep Durishetty, she scored 1125 marks out of 2025 in UPSC CSE 2017 and scored AIR 1.
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Questions related to UPSC Civil Services Exam
How can I start preparing for IAS exams from 10th?
After 10th,you have to complete your class 11th and 12th with any group but I think HEC (History Economics Civics) will be useful.
After completion of class 12th,you have to complete your graduation (Any degree).
After completion of bachelor degree,you have to take coaching for an IAS for 1 year.
After coaching,You have to appear for exams (I.e.prelims,mains).
If you have qualified in mains then you'll get a call for interview.
The marks of mains and interview will be added.
If you have got a good rank then you'll become an IAS.
Hope it helps!
All the best for your future!
Along with IAS coaching NCERT Books will also taught by the coaching centre
Yes definitely, coaching centres also teach NCERT books as the NCERT books of 9th to 12th class plays a vital role in the prelims round of UPSC exam. With NCERT books they also cover the standard books as these books have more question content and are written from the ground up. They form the foundation of your knowledge. Coaching centres also provide their coaching notes, they are helpful in revision before the exam.
Please tell about ias coaching
Following are top IAS coaching institutes in India:
1. Plutus IAS Coaching
2 . The Hinduzone Online IAS Coaching
3 . Vajiram and Ravi IAS Coaching India
4 . KSG IAS Coaching
5 . Raj Malhotra IAS Coaching
6 . Yojna IAS Coaching
7 . Vaid’s Ics IAS Coaching
8 . Vision India IAS Coaching
9 . EDEN IAS Coaching
10 . Chanakya IAS Academy
i want to become an ias after 10th standrd.........if i join foundations in 11th standard and then i will give exam without graduation is it possible????????
No you will not be eligible for upsc ias if you do not complete your graduation or are in your final year of graduation. The eligibility criteria for ias says that, Candidates must hold a graduation degree in any discipline from a reputed university or must be in their final year.
For more info you may visit the following link:
who is bigger ias sp iwant it because i given form of upsc
According to the democratic system of government, people's representatives are more powerful than these officers. IAS and IPS services is a part of the prestigious Indian Civil services. The job profile of both these are very broad and both are posted on powerful posts, but IAS is more powerful as a DM. An IPS has only the responsibility of its department, but an IAS (DM) has the responsibility of all the departments of the district. First of all work hard for the examination power comes with the post to change the society.