UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 - Detailed UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 - The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has mentioned the UPSC Geography 2022 syllabus in its official notification which was released on February 2, 2022. Candidates preparing for the UPSC IAS 2022 exam must go through the detailed UPSC Geography syllabus 2022 in order to qualify the exam. The Geography is an optional subject and aspirants can check the detailed Paper 1 and 2 of syllabus of UPSC Geography 2022 here, which consists of all the important sections from where the question paper will be based like - Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Geography, Biogeography as well as Perspectives in Human Geography, Population and Settlement Geography, Models, Theories & Laws in Human Geography etc.
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Aspirants must also know about the exam pattern of UPSC IAS to know about the sections, time duration and stages of the exam. Geography is part of the UPSC IAS 2022 mains syllabus. Check all details related to the UPSC Geography syllabus 2022 here.
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 - Subject Wise
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 for Paper 1 - Physical Geography
Endogenetic and exogenetic forces, factors controlling landform development, Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Origin and evolution of the crust of earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Isostasy; Volcanicity, Earthquakes & Tsunamis; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building, Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development, Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment
Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
Genesis of various soil, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors which influence world distribution of plants and animals; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; agroforestry; Social forestry, Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Influence of man on ecology and environment; Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Global and regional ecological changes & imbalances; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental education and legislation.
Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Atmospheric stability & instability. Air masses and fronto; Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Weather and Climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
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UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 for Paper 1 - Human Geography
Models, Theories & Laws in Human Geography
Marxian and demographic transition models; Malthusian,System analysis in Human geography; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Weber’s model of industrial location; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
Population and Settlement Geography
Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Growth and distribution of world population; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Social well-being and quality of life; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Population as social capital. Environmental issues in rural settlements; Types and patterns of rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city & rule of rank size, Sphere of urban influence; Functional classification of towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Sustainable development of cities.
World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade
Perspectives in Human Geography
Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy & dualism; Environmentalism; Radical, behavioural, Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; human and welfare approaches; Human development index (HDI)
Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Concept of a region; Types of regions & methods of regionalisation; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development
UPSC Subject-wise Questions for various Subjects
UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 for Paper 2 - Geography of India
Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture & poultry; Agro-climatic zones, Agro-ecological regions; Agricultural regionalisation;
Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Energy crisis
Industrial regionalisation; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism. Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, automobile, chemical and pharmaceutical, cottage and agro-based industries;
State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Geographical basis of Indian federalism; International boundary of India and related issues; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm
Structure and relief; Space relationship of India with its neighbouring countries; Physiographic regions; Drainage system and watersheds; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods & droughts; Natural vegetation, Climatic regions, Soil types and their distributions.
Racial linguistic & ethnic diversities; Historical Perspective of Indian Society; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas & their problems; Growth, distribution and density of population; Cultural regions; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, dependency ratio, work-force, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
Issues related to environmental pollution; Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Population explosion and food security; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
Regional Development and Planning
Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Experience of regional planning in India; Watershed management; Command area development; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories
Transport, Communication and Trade
Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Export processing zones; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
Urban developments; Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Slums and associated problems; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies
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UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 - Preparation Tips
Candidates preparing for UPSC IAS, must prepare in such a way that they have an upper edge over the competition. Here we are sharing some UPSC IAS preparation tips that will help candidates to score well and qualify for UPSC exam. Check the tips here.
Refer to NCERT books to prepare for Geography only.
Make a perfect IAS study plan to study for Geography and stick with it.
UPSC CSE Geography requires a high-level preparation level as the difficulty level of the exam is of graduation level, hence candidates must start the preparations early.
Solve previous year questions papers of the Geography mains exam to know about the type of questions, difficulty level and question pattern. Also, look for UPSC IAS question papers for Geography and solve mock tests.
Do previous year UPSC IAS exam analysis, to know the cut off trends, sample questions etc and also to work on your weaker subjects.
Best Books to Cover UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022
Aspirants planning to take Geography as their optional subject must also go through the best books of Geography. Check the UPSC Geography 2022 syllabus from the following table below-
UPSC Geography Books for Paper 1
UPSC Geography Books for Paper 2
Agricultural Geography – Majid Husain
A Geography of India -Gopal Singh
Environmental Geography – Savindra Singh
Certificate Physical and Human Geography – Goh Cheng Leong
Human Geography -Majid Husain
Oxford School Atlas – Oxford
Physical Geography in Diagrams -Bunnett
Geography of Population- R.C.Chandna
Also read: UPSC Mock Tests Series for UPSC
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - UPSC Geography Syllabus 2022 - Detailed UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus
Question: Is Geography a good subject to be taken as optional for UPSC CSE?
Yes, only if you have interest in Geography as a subject, or else it can be difficult.
Question: How to prepare for Geography?
The difficulty level of Geography is of graduation level. The preparation takes a lot of time, candidates must refer to only the best books of UPSC IAS for preparation.
Question: Which is the easiest optional subject for UPSC CSE?
The difficulty and easy level of the subject depends on your interest and likeability. Many candidates pick Sociology, Geography and Public Administration as their optional subjects.
Question: Which is the minimum academic qualification required to apply for UPSC?
To apply for UPSC, aspirants must be a graduate.
Question: Who scored the highest marks in UPSC CSE ever?
It was Anudeep Durishetty, she scored 1125 marks out of 2025 in UPSC CSE 2017 and scored AIR 1.
UPSC IAS Cut off 2022 - Check the various details of UPSC IAS ...
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Questions related to UPSC CSE
Im a student Moving from 10th grade to 11th grade, can u please suggest me regarding stream selection in 11th. Actually, My aim of life is IAS. but Im Canfused in selecting stream. please tell me PCM / PCB , which most sutable for UPSC.
Hope you're doing great and it's good to see that you're clear about what you want in your life at such an early age but you should know that UPSC is one of the toughest exams in India and minimum eligibility criteria for it is graduation so for now I'd advise you to opt for whichever stream you find interesting. Side by side you can keep on looking the UPSC syllabus and read as much as you can. As UPSC paper consists of an optional paper so you can complete your graduation and then decide which subject you'll opt for it. Currently I'd advise you to go for subjects and stream you have interest in.
Please find attached the syllabus of UPSC examination.
which subject I choose for ias after 10th
Dear Student ,
As you are in class 10, you need not to much pressure for preparing in IAS. Focus on your current curriculum for now . UPSC CSE is one of the most toughest competitive exams in India . So, only a proper subject only can't give you success .
For your help :
UPSC CSE eligibility in Academic qualification : Graduation in any subjects from any recognized University .
You can follow the below points till your Graduation is complete :
- Start Studying English Newspaper like The Hindu and make a practice/habit to read the Newspaper on a daily time basis
- Read the UPSC syllabus properly in your free time, and based on that you choose your subjects in 11th . As in UPSC , there is Optional paper which you need to select .
- Try to complete your mock test (based on your academic syllabus) within schedule time
- Be punctual and be consistent in your studies .
For your reference , you can go through this UPSC prep strategy article :
Hope this helps !
Iam in class 7 and i want to prepare for ias exam what should i study
Dear aspirant !!
Hope you are doing great ! Dear , it's too early to prepare for ias ,don't ruin your childhood and memories in this rat race. ,try to explore more yourself. May be you are good in something other. At this stage it is hard to know the abilities of ourselves , don't be in burden of your parents ,ias is not an cup of tea for all. Stay calm and think about it . You have a lot of time .
However I can give you some tips to start your preparation ;-
- Take the early advantage. ...
- Realise that you have time constraints, so prioritize your time! ...
- Buy the most recommended books for IAS preparation. ...
- Enroll for ClearIAS mock test series. ...
- Utilise your spare time. ...
- Read newspapers and magazines. ...
- Keep writing..
For more information, regarding upsc ,visit the link ;-
Hope it helps you !!
I have hemophobia... am I eligible for IAS
Hemophobia is the fear of seeing blood, it's nothing to do with your eligibility of IAS, so yes you are eligible. Just make sure that during medical verification you gets your tests done, and don't skip blood tests etc just because of fear of seeing blood.
If you want to become an IAS officer then you need to clear UPSC civil services examination. UPSC eligibility criteria is provided below:-
-----------) You must have a bachelor's degree in any, discipline from a recognised university.
-----------) Minimum age limit :- you need to be at least 21 years old to be eligible as on 1st of August of the year of filling the form i. e as on 1st August 2021 for UPSC 2021.
-----------) Maximum age limit :- 32 years , also there's 3 year relaxation on upper age limit for obc and of 5 years for sc/st category.
-----------) Attempt limit:- The maximum of times one can appear in UPSC is given below category wise :-
General/ EWS - 6
OBC or General PwD - 9
SC/ ST - No limit , can appear till upper age limit .
For detailed information related to UPSC eligibility criteria , you can visit our page at
If you are eligible then you need to appear in UPSC civil services examination which consists of three stages listed below :-
-----------) prelims exam :- it is objective paper and is of qualifying nature , so you just need to at least qualify it to be eligible for mains examination, the score /marks obtained by you in your prelims examination is not added up or used in your final merit. Your prelims exam consist of 2 papers: -
-) general studies 1
-) general studies II ( csat )
You get 2 hours for each paper
-----------) Mains exam. :- it is descriptive /written examination . There are a total of 9 papers which are listed below:-
-) compulsory indian language.
-) general studies I
-) general studies II
-) general studies III
-) general studies IV
-) optional I
-) optional II
-----------) Interview :- After qualifying mains, you have to go through interview round, and it is more of test of your personality rather than knowledge.
If you managed to sail through all the three stages then you can become an IAS officer depending on your rank in UPSC, your category etc
For detailed information check out :-
For upsc preparation tips go through :-
which group best for IAS and college
Your profile suggests that your qualification is 10th.
You can choose any of science ,commerce or arts stream based on your interest after your 10th for your 10 +2 and then for graduation if you want to become an IAS officer.
This is because,
to become an IAS officer you need to clear UPSC civil services examination and to be eligible for UPSC examination there is no compulsion to have done 10+2 in a particular stream , also there's no compulsion to be a graduate in a particular subject. You can be a graduate in any discipline.
For your reference,
UPSC eligibility criteria is provided below:-
************* You must have a bachelor's degree in any, discipline from a recognised university .
************* Minimum age limit :- you need to be at least 21 years old to be eligible as on 1st of August of the year of filling the form
************* Maximum age limit :- 32 years , also there's 3 year relaxation on upper age limit for obc and of 5 years for sc/st category as on 1st August of the year of examination
************* Attempt limit:- The maximum of times one can appear in UPSC is given below category wise :-
General/ EWS - 6
OBC or General PwD - 9
SC/ ST - No limit , can appear till upper age limit .
You can check detailed eligibility at :- https://competition.careers360.com/articles/upsc-ias-eligibility-criteria
choosing Arts or the humanities in your 10+2 and graduation can be really helpful for your UPSC examination, this is because in Arts you will be learning subjects like history , polity etc which are a part of the UPSC syllabus so it will help you in your upsc examination.
So, take your time and decide .
Coming to college/school
You can choose any recognised school/college for 10+2 and then for graduation depending upon the course you opt for.
To help you further, here's a brief of your UPSC examination pattern
Your UPSC civil services examination consists of three stages
********prelims exam :- it is objective paper and is of qualifying nature , so you just need to at least qualify it to be eligible for mains examination, the score /marks obtained by you in your prelims examination is not added up or used in your final merit. Your prelims exam consist of 2 papers: -
-----) general studies 1
-----) general studies II ( csat )
You get 2 hours for each paper
********Mains exam. :- it is descriptive /written examination . There are a total of 9 papers which are listed below:-
-----) compulsory indian language.
-----) general studies I
-----) general studies II
-----) general studies III
-----) general studies IV
-----) optional I
-----) optional II
The compulsory indian language and english are qualifying in nature . You just need to qualify them. The marks obtained by you in these two papers will not be counted towards merit list.
*********Interview :- After qualifying mains, you have to go through interview round, and it is more of test of your personality rather than knowledge.
For detail examination pattern check out :- https://competition.careers360.com/articles/upsc-ias-exam-pattern