About UPSC Civil Services Exam 2019

Union Public Service Commission conducts Civil Services Exam for the recruitment of candidates to All India Services like Indian Administrative Services (IAS), Indian Police Services (IPS) and Indian Forest Services (IFS) and Central Services such as Indian Audit and Accounts Service (IA&AS), Indian Foreign Service etc. Candidates can fill the application form from February to March, in online mode. The graduate candidates who are between 21 to 32 years of age are eligible to appear for Civil Services Exam. The selection process of UPSC Civil Services comprises three stages – Preliminary, Mains and Interview. 

Frequency: Once a year
Languages English, Hindi
Conducting Body: Union Public Service Commission
UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary - Duration 4 Hours +1 More

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UPSC Civil Services Exam 2019 Important Dates

UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains Exam (Session 2019)

Upcoming Dates and Events

20 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - I | Mode: Offline

21 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - II | Mode: Offline

21 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - III | Mode: Offline

22 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - V | Mode: Offline

22 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - IV | Mode: Offline

28 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - A (Indian Language) | Mode: Offline

28 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - B (English) | Mode: Offline

29 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - VII (Optional Paper - II) | Mode: Offline

30 Aug, 2019 - 29 Sep, 2019

Admit Card | Mode: Online Ongoing

29 Sep, 2019

Exam - Paper - VI (Optional Paper - I) | Mode: Offline

Past Dates and Events

01 Aug, 2019 - 16 Aug, 2019

Application | Mode: Online

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Exam (Session 2019)

Past Dates and Events

12 Jul, 2019

Result | Mode: Online

01 May, 2019 - 02 Jun, 2019

Admit Card | Mode: Online

02 Jun, 2019

Exam | Mode: Offline

19 Feb, 2019 - 18 Mar, 2019

Application | Mode: Online

UPSC Civil Services Exam (Session 2019)

Past Dates and Events

19 Feb, 2019 - 19 Mar, 2019

Advertisement | Mode: Online

Candidates can check below Civil Services eligibility criteria in terms of age, educational qualification, nationality and number of attempts.
Candidates to be eligible for Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service must be a citizen of India.
While for other services, candidates must be either -
• A citizen of India Or
• Nepal / Bhutan/a Tibetan refugee (who came to India before January 1, 1962 with the intention of settling down permanently) or
• Those migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam to settle in India. These candidates must have eligibility certificate issued by Government of India.
Candidates belonging to Nepal, Bhutan or Tibetan refugee are not eligible for appointment to Indian Foreign Service.
Age limit as on August 1, 2019
Candidates age should be 21 to 32 years
Relaxation in upper age limit will be provided to the following categories.
• SC/ST – 5 years
• OBC – 3 years
• Defence Service Personnel – 3 years
• Ex-Servicemen – 5 years
• ECOs/SSCOs – 5 years
• PwD – 10 years
Academic qualification
Candidates must have graduation in any discipline. Those who have appeared in their final year degree examination and results are awaited are eligible for the examination.
Number of Attempts
• Candidates appearing for Civil Service Examination will be provided only six attempts.
• There is no restriction for SC/ST candidates
    • OBC category candidates are permitted nine attempts

Mode of Application : Offline and Online

Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card | Bank Challan | Other

Union Public Services Commission (UPSC) releases the application form for UPSC Civil Services Exam. General and OBC category candidates have to pay Rs 100 while female/SC/ST/PWD candidates are exempted from payment of application fees. UPSC also provides the facility to withdraw the application form. However, the application fee paid by candidates can not refunded. 

Application Fees

Category Quota Mode Gender Amount
General Offline Male ₹ 100
OBC Online Male ₹ 100

UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains Syllabus

English Comprehension of given passages
Precis writing
Usage and vocabulary
Short essays
Indian languages Comprehension of given passages
Precis writing
Usage and vocabulary
Short essays
Translation from english to the indian language and vice-versa
Essay Write essay on multiple topics
Section A William shakespeare - king lear and the tempest
John donne and following poems
Death be not proud
The good morrow
On his mistress going to bed
The relic
John milton - paradise lost, i, ii, iv, ix
Alexander pope - the rape of the lock
William wordsworth and following poems
Ode on intimations of immortality
Tintern abbey
Three years she grew
She dwelt among untrodden ways
Resolution and independence
The world is too much with us
Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour
Upon westminster bridge
Alfred tennyson - in memoriam
Henrik ibsen - a doll’s house
Poets of the thirties
The stream of-consciousness novel
Absurd drama
Colonialism and post-colonialism
Indian writing in english
Marxist theory
Psychoanalytical and feminist approaches to literature
William butler yeats and the following poems
Easter 1916
The second coming
A prayer for my daughter
Sailing to byzantium
The tower
Among school children
Leda and the swan
Lapis lazuli
T.s. eliot
The love song of j. alfred prufrock
Journey of the magi
Burnt norton
W.h. auden and the following poems
Musee des beaux arts
In memory of w.b. yeats
Lay your sleeping head, my love
The unknown citizen
Mundus et infans
The shield of achilles
Septembers 1, 1939
John osborne - look back in anger
Samuel beckett
Waiting for godot
Philip larkin and the following poems
Mr. bleaney
A.k. ramanujan
Looking for a cousin on a swing
A river
Of mothers, among other things
Love poem for a wife
Small-scale reflections on a great house
Section B Jonathan swift, gulliver’s travels
Jane austen
Pride and prejudice
Henry fielding
Tom jones
Charles dickens
Hard times
George eliot
The mill on the floss
Thomas hardy
Tess of the d’urbervilles
Mark twain
The adventures of huckleberry finn
Joseph conrad
Lord jim
James joyce
Portrait of the artist as a young man
D.h. lawrence
Sons and lovers
E.m. forster
A passage to india
Virginia woolf
Mrs. dalloway
Raja rao. kanthapura
V.s. naipaul
A house for mr. biswas
General studies
Indian heritage and culture, history and geography of the world and society Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of art forms
Literature and architecture from ancient to modern times
Modern indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities and issues
The freedom struggle and its various stages
Important contributors/contributions in the freedom struggle from different parts of the country
Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country
History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution
World wars
Redrawal of national boundaries
Political philosophies like communism
Socialism etc and their forms and effect on the society
Salient features of indian society
Diversity of india
Role of women and women’s organization
Population and associated issues
Poverty and developmental issues
Urbanization and their problems and their remedies
Effects of globalization on indian society
Social empowerment
Regionalism and secularism
Salient features of world’s physical geography
Distribution of key natural resources across the world
Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world
Important geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes
Important geophysical phenomena such as tsunami
Important geophysical phenomena such as volcanic activity
Important geophysical phenomena such as cyclone
Geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes
Governance, constitution, polity, social justice and international relations Indian constitution
Historical underpinnings
Evolution of indian constitution
Features of indian constitution
Amendments of indian constitution
Significant provisions and basic structure of indian constitution
Functions and responsibilities of the union and the states
Issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure
Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein
Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions
Comparison of the indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
Parliament and state legislatures
Structure of parliament and state legislatures
Functioning of parliament and state legislatures
Conduct of business
Powers and privileges
Issues arising out of these
Structure, organization and functioning of the executive and the judiciary
Ministries and departments of the government
Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the polity
Salient features of the representation of people’s act
Appointment to various constitutional posts
Powers of various constitutional bodies
Functions and responsibilities of various constitutional bodies
Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
Development processes and the development industry
The role of ngos, shgs and various groups
Associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the centre and states and the performance of these schemes
Mechanisms constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Laws constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Betterment of these vulnerable sections
Issues relating to development and management of social sector/services relating to health
Issues relating to development and management of social sector/services relating to education
Issues relating to development and management of social sector/services relating to human resources
Issues relating to poverty and hunger
Important aspects of governance
Transparency and accountability
Applications of e-governance
Models of e-governance
Successes of e-governance
Limitations and potential of e-governance
Citizens charters
Institutional and other measures
Role of civil services in a democracy
Relations of india and its neighborhood
Regional and global groupings
Agreements involving india and/or affecting india’s interests
Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on india’s interests
Indian diaspora
Important international institutions
The structure of fora and agencies
Technology, economic development, bio diversity, environment, security and disaster management Indian economy and issues relating to planning
Indian economy and issues relating to mobilization of resources
Indian economy and issues relating to growth
Development and employment
Inclusive growth and issues arising from it
Government budgeting
Major crops
Cropping patterns in various parts of the country
Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage
Transport and marketing of agricultural produce
Issues and related constraints
E-technology in the aid of farmers
Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices
Public distribution system
Objectives of public distribution system
Functioning of public distribution system
Limitations of public distribution system
Issues of buffer stocks and food security
Technology missions
Economics of animal-rearing
Food processing and related industries in india- scope and significance
Location of food processing and related industries in india- scope and significance
Upstream and downstream requirements
Supply chain management
Land reforms in india
Effects of liberalization on the economy
Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth
Infrastructure: energy
Infrastructure: ports
Infrastructure: roads
Infrastructure: airports
Infrastructure: railways
Investment models
Science and technology
Developments and applications and effects of science and technology in everyday life
Achievements of indians in science and technology
Indigenization of technology and developing new technology
Awareness in the fields of it
Awareness in the fields of space
Awareness in the fields of computers
Awareness in the fields of robotics
Biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights
Environmental pollution and degradation
Environmental impact assessment
Disaster and disaster management
Linkages between development and spread of extremism
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
Challenges to internal security through communication networks
Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges
Basics of cyber security
Money laundering and its prevention
Security challenges and their management in border areas - linkages of organized crime with terrorism
Various security forces and agencies and their mandate
Ethics, integrity and aptitude Ethics and human interface
Essence of ethics and human interface
Determinants and consequences of ethics in-human actions
Dimensions of ethics
Ethics - in private and public relationships
Human values
Lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders
Reformers and administrators
Role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values
Content of attitude
Structure of attitude
Function and its influence and relation with thought and behaviour
Moral and political attitudes
Social influence and persuasion
Aptitude and foundational values for civil service
Impartiality and nonpartisanship
Dedication to public service
Tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections
Emotional Intelligence
Concepts and their utilities
Application in administration and governance
Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from india and world
Public/civil service values and ethics in public administration
Status and problems
Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions
Laws as a source of ethical guidance
Rules as a source of ethical guidance
Regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance
Accountability and ethical governance
Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance
Ethical issues in international relations and funding
Corporate governance
Probity in governance
Concept of public service
Philosophical basis of governance and probity
Information sharing and transparency in government
Right to information
Codes of ethics
Codes of conduct
Citizen’s charters
Work culture
Quality of service delivery
Utilization of public funds
Challenges of corruption
Case studies on above issues
Ecology and its relevance to man
Natural resources and their sustainable management and conservation
Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production
Agro ecology
Cropping pattern as indicators of environments
Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops
Animals and humans
Climate change
International conventions and global initiatives
Greenhouse effect and global warming
Advance tools for ecosystem analysis
Remote sensing and geographic information systems
Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country
Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns
Concepts of various cropping and farming systems
Organic and precision farming
Package of practices for production of important cereals
Package of practices for production of important pulses
Package of practices for production of important oil seeds
Package of practices for production of important fibres
Package of practices for production of important sugar
Package of practices for production of important commercial and fodder crops
Important features of various types of forestry plantations
Scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry
Scope of various types of forestry plantations such as agro-forestry
Scope of various types of forestry plantations such as natural forests
Propagation of forest plants
Forest products
Agro-forestry and value addition
Conservation of forest flora and fauna
Weeds and their characteristics
Dissemination and association with various crops and their multiplications
Chemical control of weeds
Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil
Processes and factors of soil formation
Soils of India
Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity
Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants
Principles of soil fertility
Soil testing and fertiliser recommendations
Integrated nutrient management biofertilizers
Losses of nitrogen in soil
Nitrogen use efficiency in submerged rice soils
Nitrogen fixation in soils
Efficient phosphorus and potassium use
Problem soils and their reclamation
Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission
Soil conservation
Integrated watershed management
Soil erosion and its management
Dry land agriculture and its problems
Technology for stabilising agriculture production in rain fed areas
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production
Criteria for scheduling irrigations
Ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water
Rainwater harvesting
Drip and sprinkler irrigation
Drainage of water-logged soils
Quality of irrigation water
Effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution
Irrigation projects in India
Farm management
Scope of farm management
Importance and characteristics of farm management
Farm planning
Optimum resource use and budgeting
Economics of different types of farming systems
Marketing management strategies for development
Market intelligence
Price fluctuations and their cost
Role of cooperatives in agricultural economy
Types and systems of farming and factors affecting them
Agricultural price policy
Crop insurance
Agricultural extension, its importance and role
Methods of evaluation of extension programmes
Small and marginal farmers
Landless agricultural labourers
Training programmes for extension workers
Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s in dissemination of agricultural technologies
Non-government organisation
Self-help group approach for rural development
Cell structure
Function and cell cycle
Structure and function of genetic material
Laws of heredity
Chromosome structure
Chromosomal aberrations
Linkage and cross-over and their significance in recombination breeding
Euploids and aneuploids
Mutation and their role in crop improvement
Sterility and incompatibility
Classification and their application in crop improvement
Cytoplasmic inheritance
Sex-influenced and sex-limited characters
History of plant breeding
Modes of reproduction
Selfing and crossing techniques
Origin of crop plants
Evolution and domestication of crop plants
Centre of origin
Law of homologous series
Crop genetic resources
Conservation and utilization
Application of principles of plant breeding
Improvement of crop plants
Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement
Pure-line selection
Mass and recurrent selections
Combining ability and its significance in plant breeding
Heterosis and its exploitation
Somatic hybridization
Breeding for disease and pest resistance
Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization
Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement genetically modified crop plants
Seed production and processing technologies
Seed certification
Seed testing and storage
DNA finger printing and seed registration
Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing
Intellectual property rights issues
WTO issues and its impact on agriculture
Principles of plant physiology with reference to plant nutrition
Principles of plant physiology with reference to absorption
Translocation and metabolism of nutrients
Soil-water-plant relationship
Enzymes and plant pigments
Modern concepts and factors affecting the process
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
C3, C4 and cam mechanisms
Protein and fat metabolism
Growth and development
Photoperiodism and vernalization
Plant growth substances and their role in crop production
Physiology of seed development and germination
Stress physiology
Draught, salt and water stress
Major fruits
Plantation crops
Spices and flower crops
Package practices of major horticultural crops
Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture
Post-harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables
Landscaping and commercial floriculture
Medicinal and aromatic plants
Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition
Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops
Diagnosis of pests and diseases of vegetables
Orchard and plantation crops and their economic
Orchard and plantation crops and their importance
Classification of pests and diseases and their management
Integrated pest and diseases management
Storage pests and their management
Biological control of pests and diseases
Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases
Plant quarantine measures
Pesticides and their formulation and modes of action
Food production and consumption trends in India
Food security and growing population vision 2020
Reasons for grain surplus
National and international food policies
Distribution constraints
Availability of food grains
Per capita expenditure on food
Trends in poverty
Public distribution system and below poverty line population
Targeted public distribution system
Policy implementation in context to globalization
Processing constraints
Relation of food production to national dietary guidelines and food consumption pattern
Food based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger
Nutrient deficiency
Micro nutrient deficiency
Protein energy malnutrition or protein calorie malnutrition
Micro nutrient deficiency and hrd in context of work capacity of women and children
Food grain productivity and food security
Animal husbandry and veterinary science
Animal nutrition Partitioning of food energy within the animal
Direct and indirect calorimetry
Nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods
Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants
Pigs and poultry
Energy requirements for maintenance
Energy requirements for growth
Energy requirements for pregnancy
Energy requirements for lactation
Energy requirements for egg
Energy requirements for wool and meat production
Latest advances in protein nutrition
Energy protein inter-relationships
Evaluation of protein quality
Use of npn compounds in ruminant diets
Major and trace minerals and their sources
Physiological functions and deficiency symptoms
Toxic minerals
Mineral interactions
Role of fat soluble and water
Soluble vitamins in the body and their sources and deficiency symptoms
Feed additives
Feed additives: methane inhibitors
Feed additives: probiotics
Feed additives: enzymes
Feed additives: antibiotics
Feed additives: hormones
Feed additives: oligosaccharides
Feed additives: antioxidants
Feed additives: emulsifiers
Feed additives: mould inhibitors
Feed additives: buffer
Use and abuse of growth promoters like harmones and antibiotics
Latest concepts
Conservation of fodders
Storage of feeds and feed ingredients
Recent advances in feed technology and feed processing
Anti-nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds
Feed analysis and quality control
Digestibility trials
Direct, indirect and indicator methods
Predicting feed intake in grazing animals
Advances in ruminant nutrition
Nutrient requirements
Balanced rations
Feeding of calves
Work animals and breeding bulls
Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle
Effect of feeding on milk composition
Feeding of goats for meat and milk production
Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production
Swine nutrition
Grower and finisher rations
Feeding of pigs for lean meat production
Low cost rations for swine
Poultry nutrition
Special features of poultry nutrition
Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production
Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers
Animal physiology Physiology of blood and its circulation
Endocrine glands in health and disease
Blood constituents
Properties and functions
Blood cell formation
Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry
Plasma proteins production
Classification and properties
Coagulation of blood
Haemorrhagic disorders
Blood groups
Blood volume
Plasma expanders
Buffer systems in blood
Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis
Physiology of heart
Cardiac cycle
Heart sounds
Heart beat
Work and efficiency of heart
Effect of ions on heart function
Metabolism of cardiac muscle
Nervous and chemical regulation of heart
Effect of temperature and stress on heart
Blood pressuer and hypertension
Osmotic regulation
Arterial pulse
Vasomotor regulation of circulation
Coronary and pulmonary circulation
Blood-brain barrier cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds
Mechanism of respiration
Transport and exchange of gases-neural control of respiration-chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds
Structure and function of kidney formation of urine-methods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance
Physiological constituents of urine-renal failurepassive venous congestion-urinary secretion in chicken-sweat glands and their function
Biochemical test for urinary dysfunction
Endocrine glands
Functional disorders and their symptoms and diagnosis
Synthesis of hormones
Mechanism and control of secretion
Hormonal receptors
Classification and function
Growth and animal production
Prenatal and postnatal growth
Growth curves
Measures of growth
Factors affecting growth
Body composition
Meat quality
Physiology of milk production
Reproduction and digestion
Current status of hormonal control of mammary development
Milk secretion and milk ejection
Male and female reproductive organs and their components and functions
Digestive organs and their functions
Environmental physiology
Physiological relations and their regulation
Mechanisms of adaptation
Environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour
Various parameters and their importance
Animal ecology
Physiology of behaviour
Effect of stress on health and production
Animal reproduction Semen quality
Preservation and artificial insemination
Components of semen
Composition of spermatozoa
Chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen
Factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro
Factors affecting semen production and quality
Composition of diluents
Sperm concentration
Transport of diluted semen
Deep freezing techniques in cows
Deep freezing techniques in sheep
Deep freezing techniques in goats
Swine and poultry
Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception
Anoestrus and repeat breeding
Livestock production and management Commercial dairy farming
Comparison of dairy farming in india with advanced countries
Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming
Economic dairy farming
Starting of a dairy farm
Capital and land requirement
Organization of the dairy farm
Opportunities in dairy farming
Factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal
Heard recording
Budgeting cost of milk production
Pricing policy
Personnel management
Developing practical and economic rations for dairy cattle
Supply of greens throughout the year
Feed and fodder requirements of dairy farm
Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls
Heifers and breeding animals
New trends in feeding young and adult stock
Feeding records
Commercial meat
Egg and wool production
Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry
Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and mature stock
New trends in enhancing production and management
Capital and land requirements and socio-economic concept
Feeding and management of animals under drought
Flood and other natural calamities
Genetics and animal breeding History of animal genetics
Mitosis and meiosis
Mendelian inheritance
Deviations to mendelian
Expression of genes
Linkage and crossing over
Sex determination
Sex influenced and sex limited characters
Blood groups and polymorphism
Chromosome aberrations
Cytoplasmic inheritance
Gene and its structure
DNA as a genetic material
Genetic code and protein synthesis
Recombinant DNA Technology
Mutations and their types
Methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate
Population genetics applied to animal breeding
Quantitative vs qualitative traits
Hardy weinberg law
Population vs individual
Gene and genotypic frequency
Forces changing gene frequency
Random drift and small populations
Theory of path coefficient
Methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient
Systems of inbreeding
Effective population size
Breeding value
Estimation of breeding value
Dominance and epistatic deviation
Partitioning of variation
Genotype x environment correlation and genotype x environment interaction
Role of multiple measurements
Resemblance between relatives
Breeding systems
Breeds of livestsock and poultry
Repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations and their methods of estimation
Precision of estimates
Aids to selection and their relative merits
Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection
Pregnency testing
Methods of selection
Construction of selection indices and their uses
Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods
Indirect selection and correlated response
Out breeding
Cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds
Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production
Selection for general and specific combining ability
Breeding for threshold characters
Sire index
Basic philosophy
Concept and principles of extension
Different methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions
Generation of technology and its transfer and feedback
Problems and constraints in transfer of technology
Animal husbandry programmes for rural development
Anatomy, pharmacology and hygiene Histology and histological techniques
Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and h.e
Freezing microtomy
Microscopy bright field microscope and electron microscope
Structure of cell organells and inclusions
Cell division
Cell types
Tissues and their classification
Embryonic and adult tissues
Histology of organs
Musculo-skeletal and urogenital systems
Endocrine glands
Sense organs
Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves
Domestic mammals gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes
Placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-teratology-twins
Twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives-endodermal
Mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives
Bovine anatomy
Regional anatomy
Paranasal sinuses of ox
Surface anatomy of salivary glands
Regional anatomy of infraorbital
Mental and cornnal nerve block
Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves
Pudental nerve
Ulnar and radial nervestibial
Fibular and digital nerves
Cranial nerves
Structures involved in epidural anaesthesia
Superficial lymph nodes
Surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic
Abdominal and pelvic cavities
Features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body
Anatomy of fowl
Musculo-skeletal system
Functional anatomy in relation to respiration
Flying, digestion and egg production
Pharmacology and therapeutics drugs
Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance
Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system
Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics
Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections
Use of hormones in therapeutics
Chemotherapy of parasitic infections
Drug and economic concerns in the edible tissues of animals
Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases
Toxicity due to “insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins”
Veterinary hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation
Assessment of pollution of water
Air and soil
Importance of climate in animal health
Effect of environment on animal function and performance relationship between industrialisation and animal agriculture
Animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz
Pregnant cows and sows
Milking cows
Broiler birds
Stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation
Animal diseases Etiology
Epidemiology pathogenesis
Post-moretem lesions
Control of infectious diseases of cattle
Sheep and goat
Pigs and poultry
Treatment of production diseases of cattle
Horse, pig and poultry
Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds
Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions
Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders
Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific diseases
Hard immunity
Disease free zones
Zero disease concept
Local, regional and general-prenesthetic medication
Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation
Choking abomassal displacement
Caesarian operations
Disease investigation techniques
Materials for laboratory investigation
Animal health centres
Disease free zone
Veterinary public health Classification and defination of zoonoses
Role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases
Occupational zoonotic diseases
Principle of epidemiology
Definition of epidemiological terms
Application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control
Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections
Oie regulation
Sanitary and phytosanitary measures
Veterinary jurisprudence
Rules and regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases
State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases
S.p. and c.a.
Veterolegal cases
Materials and methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation
Milk and milk products technology Market milk
Testing and grading of raw milk
Processing of raw milk
Packaging of raw milk
Storing of raw milk
Distribution of raw milk
Marketing defects and their control
Preparation of the following milks
Double toned
Recombined and flavoured milks
Preparation of cultured milks
Cultures and their management
Dahi, lassi and srikhand
Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks
Legal standards
Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment
Milk products technology
Selection of raw materials
Processing of raw materials
Storing of raw materials
Distributing and marketing milk products
Whey products
Butter milk
Lactose and casein
Judging milk products
Bis and agmark specifications
Quality control nutritive properties
Packaging processing and operational control
Costing of dairy products
Meat hygiene and technology Meat hygiene
Ante mortem care and management of food animals
Slaughter and dressing operations
Abattoir requirements and designs
Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts
Grading of carcass meat cuts
Duties and functions of veterinarians in wholesome meat production
Hygienic methods of handling production of meat
Spoilage of meat and control measures
Post-slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them
Quality improvement methods
Adulteration of meat and detection
Regulatory provisions in meat trade and industry
Meat technology
Physical and chemical characteristics of meat
Meat emulsions
Methods of preservation of meat
Packaging of meat and meat products
Processing and formulations
Slaughter house by-products and their utilisation
Edible and inedible by products
Social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house by-products
Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals
Poultry products technology
Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat
Pre-slaughter care and management
Slaughtering techniques
Preservation of poultry meat and products
Legal and bis standards
Structure composition and nutritive value of eggs microbial spoilage
Preservation and maintenance
Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products
Rabbit/fur animal farming
Rabbit meat production
Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products
Grading of wool
Meaning, scope and development of anthropology
Relationships with other disciplines Social sciences
Behavioural sciences
Life sciences
Medical sciences
Earth sciences and humanities
Main branches of anthropology and their scope and relevance Social-cultural anthropology
Biological anthropology
Archaeological anthropology
Linguistic anthropology
Human evolution and emergence of man Biological and cultural factors in human evolution
Theories of organic evolution
Synthetic theory of evolution
Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology
Characteristics of primates Evolutionary trend and primate taxonomy
Primate adaptations
Primate taxonomy
Primate behaviour
Tertiary and quaternary fossil primates
Living major primates
Comparative anatomy of man and apes
Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications
Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following Plio-preleistocene hominids in south and east africa-australopithecines
Homo erectus
Europe-homo erectus
Asia-homo erectus javanicus and homo erectus pekinensis
Neanderthal man
Classical type of la-chapelle-aux-saints
Progressive type of mt. carmel
Rhodesian man
Homo sapiens
Cromagnon, grimaldi and chancelede
The biological basis of life
The cell
Dna structure and replication
Protein synthesis
Chromosomes and cell division
Principles of prehistoric archaeology Chronology
Relative and absolute dating methods
Cultural evolution Broad outlines of prehistoric cultures
Copper-bronze age
Iron age
The nature of culture The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization
Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural relativism
The nature of society Concept of society
Society and culture
Social institution
Social groups and social stratification
Marriage Definition and universality
Laws of marriage
Type of marriage
Functions of marriage
Marriage regulations
Marriage payments
Family Definition and universality
Family, household and domestic groups
Functions of family
Types of family
Impact of urbanization
Industrialization and feminist movements on family
Kinship Consanguinity and affinity
Principles and types of descent
Forms of descent groups
Kinship terminology
Filiation and complimentary filiation
Decent and alliance
Economic organization Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology
Formalist and substantivist debate
Principles governing production
Distribution and exchange in communities
Subsisting on hunting and gathering
Horticulture and agriculture
Globalization and indigenous economic systems
Political organization and social control Band
Kingdom and state
Concepts of power
Authority and legitimacy
Social control
Law and justice in simple societies
Religion Anthropological approaches to the study of religion
Monotheism and polytheism
Sacred and profane
Myths and rituals
Forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies
Religion, magic and science distinguished
Magico-religious functionaries
Anthropological theories Classical evolutionism
Historical particularism diffusionism
Structural functionlism
Structuralism of l’evi-strauss and e. leach
Culture and personality of benedict, mead, linton, kardiner and cora-du bois
Neo-evolutionism of childe, white, steward, sahlins and service
Cultural materialism of harris
Symbolic and interpretive theories of turner, schneider and geertz
Cognitive theories of tyler and conklin
Post-modernism in anthropology
Culture, language and communication Nature
Origin and characteristics of language
Verbal and non-verbal communication
Social contex of language use
Research methods in anthropology Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
Distinction between technique, method and methodology
Tools of data collection
Case study
Oral history
Secondary sources of information
Participatory methods
Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data
Human genetics Methods and application
Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study
Biochemical methods
Immunological methods
D.n.a. technology and recombinant technologies
Mendelian genetics in man-family study
Single factor
Sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man
Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection
Mendelian population
Hardy-weinberg law
Causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation
Inbreeding and genetic drift
Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating
Genetic load
Genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages
Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man
Numerical and structural aberrations
Sex chromosomal aberration- klinefelter
Super female
Intersex and other syndromic disorders
Autosomal aberrations
Down syndrome
Edward and cri-du-chat syndromes
Genetic imprints in human disease
Genetic screening
Genetic counseling
Human dna profiling
Gene mapping and genome study
Race and racism
Biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters
Racial criteria
Racial traits in relation to heredity and environment
Biological basis of racial classification
Racial differentiation and race crossing in man
Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker Abo
Rh blood groups
Hla hp
Blood enzymes
Physiological characteristics
Hb level
Body fat
Pulse rate
Respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socioecomomic groups
Concepts and methods of ecological anthropology Bio-cultural adaptations
Genetic and non-genetic factors
Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses
Hot desert
Cold and high altitude climate
Epidemiological anthropology Health and disease
Infectious and non-infectious diseases
Nutritional deficiency related diseases
Concept of human growth and development Stages of growth
Factors affecting growth and development genetic
Cultural and socio-economic
Ageing and senescence
Theories and observations
Biological and chronological longevity
Human physique and somatotypes
Methodologies for growth studies
Relevance of menarche
Menopause and other bioevents to fertility
Fertility patterns and differentials
Demographic theories-biological
Social and cultural
Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity
Fertility, natality and mortality
Evolution of the Indian culture and civilization Prehistoric (palaeolithic, mesolithic, neolithic and neolithic-chalcolithic)
Protohistoric (indus civilization)
Harappan and post-harappan cultures
Contributions of the tribal cultures to indian civilization
Palaeo Anthropological evidences from india with special reference to siwaliks and narmada basin
Ethno-archaeology in India The concept of ethnoarchaeology
Survivals and parallels among the hunting
Pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities
Demographic profile of India Ethnic and linguistic elements in the indian population and their distribution
Indian population
Factors influencing and its structure and growth
The structure and nature of traditional indian social system
Varnashram, purushartha, karma, rina and rebirth
Caste system in India Structure and characteristics varna and caste
Theories of origin of caste system
Dominant caste
Caste mobility
Future of caste system
Jajmani system
Tribe-case continuum
Sacred complex and nature-man-spirit complex
Impact of buddhism, jainism, islam and christianity of indian society
Emergence, growth and development in india
Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th century
Contributions of indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies
Indian village Significane of village study in india
Indian village as a social system
Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations
Agrarian relations in indian villages
Impact of globalization on indian villages
Linguistic and religious minorities and their social
Political and economic status
Indigenous and exogenous processes of sociocultural change in indian society
Inter-play of little and great traditions
Panchayati raj and social change
Media and social change
Tribal situation in India Bio-genetic variability
Linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution
Problems of the tribal communities Land alienation
Low literacy
Poor educational facilities
Health and nutrition
Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation
Development of forest policy and tribals
Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations
Problems of exploitation and deprivation of scheduled castes
Scheduled tribes and other backward classes
Constitutional safeguards for scheduled tribes and scheduled castes
Social change and contemporary tribal societies
Impact of modern democratic institutions
Development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections
The concept of ethnicity
Ethnic conflicts and political developments
Unrest among tribal communities
Regionalism and demand for autonomy
Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-independent india
Impact of hinduism
Islam and other religions on tribal societies
Tribe and nation state
A comparative study of tribal communities in india and other countries
History of administration of tribal areas
Tribal policies
Tribal plans
Programmes of tribal development and their implementation
The concept of primitive tribal groups and their distribution and special programmes for their development
Role of n.g.os in tribal development
Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development
Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism
Communalism and ethnic and political movements
Microbiology and plant pathology Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma
Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution
Prion and prion hypothesis
Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes
Modes of infection and dissemination
Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence
Physiology of parasitism and control measures
Fungal toxins
Modelling and disease forecasting
Plant quarantine
Cryptogams Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint
Distribution of cryptogams in india and their ecological and economic importance
Phanerogams Gymnosperms
Concept of progymnosperms
Classification and distribution of gymnosperms
Salient features of cycadales
Coniferales and gnetales and their structure and reproduction
General account of cycadofilicales, bennettitales and cordiaitailes
Geological time scale
Type of fossils and their study techniques
Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency
Taxonomic hierarchy
International code of botanical nomenclature
Numerical taxomomy and chemotaxomomy
Evidence from anatomy
Embryology and palynology
Origin and evolution of angiosperms
Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms
Study of angiospermic families
Description of family Fabaceae
Description of family Liliaceae
Musaceae and orchidaceae
Stomata and their types
Glandular and non-glandular trichomes
Unusual secondary growth
Anatomy of c3 and c4 plants
Xylem and phloem differentiation
Wood anatomy
Development of male and female gametophytes
Endosperm and its development and function
Patterns of embryo development
Applications of palynology
Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization
Plant resource development Domestication and introduction of plants
Origin of cultivated plants
Vavilov’s centres of origin
Plants as sources for food
Edible oils
Resins and dyes
Starch and its products
Importance of ethnobotany in indian context
Energy plantations
Botanical gardens and herbaria
Morphogenesis Totipotency, polarity
Symmetry and differentiation
Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture
Somatic hybrids and cybrids
Somaclonal variation and its applications
Pollen haploids
Embryo rescue methods and their applications
Cell biology Techniques of cell biology
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Structural and ultrastructural details
Structure and function of extracellular matrix and membranes-cell adhesion
Membrane transport and vesicular transport
Structure and function of cell organelles
Dictyosomes ribosomes
Cytoskelaton and microtubules
Nuclear pore complex
Chromatin and nucleosome
Cell signalling and cell receptors
Signal transduction mitosis and meiosis
Molecular basis of cell cycle
Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance
Chromatin organization and packaging of genome
Polytene chromosomes
Structure of b-chromosomes
Behaviour and significance
Genetics, molecular biology and evolution Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts
Quantitative genetics and multiple factors
Incomplete dominance
Polygenic inheritance
Multiple alleles
Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular map
Sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance
Sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation
Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins
Genetic code and regulation of gene expression
Gene silencing
Multigene families
Organic evolution-evidences
Mechanism and theories
Role of rna in origin and evolution
Plant breeding, biotechnology and biostatistics Introduction of methods of plant breeding
Selection and hybridization of pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method
Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding
Use of apomixes in plant breeding
DNA Sequencing
Genetic engineering
Methods of transfer of genes
Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects
Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding
Tools and techniques
Probe and southern blotting
DNA fingerprinting
Pcr and fish
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation
Tests of significance of z-test, t-test and chi-square tests
Probability and distributions of normal, binomial and poisson
Correlation and regression
Physiology and biochemistry Water relations
Mineral nutrition and ion transport
Mineral deficiencies
Photochemical reactions
Photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways
C3, c4 and cam pathways
Mechanism of pholem transport
Respiration of anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation
Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
Chemiosmotic theory and atp synthesis
Lipid metabolism
Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism
Energy transfer and energy conservation
Importance of secondary metabolites
Pigments as photoreceptors
Plant movements
Photoperiodism and flowering
Growth substances and their chemical nature
Role and applications in agrihorticulture
Growth indices
Growth movements
Stress physiology of heat, water, salinity, metal
Fruit and seed physiology
Dormancy, storage and germination of seed
Fruit ripening and its molecular basis and manipulation
Ecology and plant geography Concept of ecosystem
Ecological factors
Concepts and dynamics of community
Plant succession
Concepts of biosphere
Pollution and its control
Plant indicators
Environment act
Forest types of india
Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests
Deforestation and social forestry
Endangered plants
Endemism iucn categories
Red data books
Biodiversity and its conservation
Protected area network
Convention of biological diversity
Farmers’ rights and intellectual property rights
Concept of sustainable development
Biogeochemical cycles
Global warming and climatic change
Invasive species
Environmetal impact assessment
Phytogeographical regions of india
Atomic structure Heisenberg's uncertainty principle schrodinger wave equation
Interpretation of wave function
Particle in one- dimensional box
Quantum numbers
Hydrogen atom wave functions
Shapes of s, p and d orbitals
Chemical bonding Ionic bond
Characteristics of ionic compounds
Lattice energy
Born-haber cycle
Covalent bond and its general characteristics
Polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments
Valence bond theory
Concept of resonance and resonance energy
Molecular orbital theory
Bonding h2 +, h2 he2 + to ne2, no, co, hf, cn–
Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories
Bond order
Bond strength and bond length
Solid state Crystal systems
Designation of crystal faces
Lattice structures and unit cell
Bragg's law
X-ray diffraction by crystals
Close packing
Radius ratio rules
Calculation of some limiting radius ratio values
Structures of nacl, zns, cscl, caf2
Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects
Impurity defects
The gaseous state and transport phenomenon Equation of state for real gases
Intermolecular interactions and critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases
Maxwell’s distribution of speeds
Intermolecular collisions
Collisions on the wall and effusion
Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases
Liquid state Kelvin equation
Surface tension and surface enercy
Wetting and contact angle
Interfacial tension and capillary action
Thermodynamics Work, heat and internal energy
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Entropy as a state function
Entropy changes in various processes
Entropy-reversibility and irreversibility
Free energy functions
Thermodynamic equation of state
Maxwell relations
Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of u, h, a, g, cp and cv
Alpha and beta
J-t effect and inversion temperature
Criteria for equilibrium
Relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities
Nernst heat theorem
Introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics
Phase equilibria and solutions Clausius-Clapeyron equation
Phase diagram for a pure substance
Phase equilibria in binary systems
Partially miscible liquids
Upper and lower critical solution temperatures
Partial molar quantities and their significance and determination
Excess thermodynamic functions and their determination
Electrochemistry Debye-huckel theory of strong electrolytes
Debye-huckel limiting law for various equilibrium
Transport properties
Galvanic cells
Concentration cells
Electrochemical series
Measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries
Processes at electrodes
Double layer at the interface
Rate of charge transfer
Current density
Electroanalytical techniques
Ion selective electrodes and their use
Chemical kinetics Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth
First, second and fractional order reactions
Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions
Branching chain and explosions
Effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant
Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods
Collisions and transition state theories
Photochemistry Absorption of light
Decay of excited state by different routes
Photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields
Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds
Excited and ground states
Singlet and triplet states
Norrish-type i and type ii reactions
Surface phenomena and catalysis Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents
Langmuir and b.e.t. adsorption isotherms
Determination of surface area
Characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts
Bio-inorganic chemistry Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes
Oxygen-uptake proteins
Cytochromes and ferrodoxins
Coordination chemistry Bonding in transition of metal complexes
Valence bond theory
Crystal field theory and its modifications
Applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and elctronic spectra of metal complexes
Isomerism in coordination compounds
Iupac nomenclature of coordination compounds
Stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers
Chelate effect and polynuclear complexes
Trans effect and its theories
Kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planar complexes
Thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes
Ean rule
Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls
Carboxylate anions
Carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds
Complexes with aromatic systems
Synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes
Alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes
Coordinative unsaturation
Oxidative addition reactions
Insertion reactions
Fluxional molecules and their characterization
Compounds with metal
Metal bonds and metal atom clusters
Main group chemistry Boranes
Phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene
Silicates and silicones
Interhalogen compounds
Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate
Nitrogen compounds
Noble gas compounds
General chemistry of ‘f’ block element Lanthanides and actinides
Oxidation state
Magnetic and spectral properties
Lanthanide contraction
Delocalised covalent bonding Aromaticity
Reaction mechanisms Kinetic and non-kinetic method of study of mechanisms or organic reactions
Mathod crossover experiment
Intermediate trapping
Energy of activation
Thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions
Reactive intermediates Generation
Stability and reactions of carboniumions and carbanions
Free radicals
Benzynes and nitrenes
Substitution reactions Sn 1, sn 2, and sn i, mechanisms
Neighbouring group participation
Electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including heterocyclic compounds
Thiophene and indole
Elimination reactions E1, e2 and e1cb mechanisms
Orientation in e2 reactions
Saytzeff and hoffmann
Pyrolytic syn elimination
Acetate pyrolysis
Chugaev and cope eliminations
Addition reactions Electrophilic addition
Nucleophilic addition to c=o
Conjugated olefins and carbonyls
Reactions and rearrangements Pinacolpinacolone
Stevens and wagner
Meerwein rearrangements
Aldol condensation
Claisen condensation
Cannizzaro and von richter reactions
Benzoin and acyloin condensations
Fischer indole synthesis
Skraup synthesis
Reimer-tiemann and reformatsky reactions
Pericyclic reactions Classification and examples
Woodward-hoffmann rules
Electrocyclic reactions
Cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5]
Fmo approach
Preparation and properties of polymers Organic polymerspolyethylene
Polyvinyl chloride
Synthetic and natural rubber
Structure of proteins
Synthetic uses of reagents Oso4, hlo4, cro3, pb(oac)4, seo2, nbs, b2h6, na-liquid nh3, liaih4, nabh4, n-buli, mcpba
Spectroscopy Principle and applications in structure elucidation
Diatomic molecules
Isotopic substitution and rotational constants
Linear triatomic molecules
Specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules
Singlet and triplet states
Application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls woodward-fieser rules
Charge transfer spectra
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Basic principle
Chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants
Mass spectrometry
Parent peak
Base peak
Metastable peak
Mclafferty rearrangement
Civil engineering
Engineering mechanics, strength of materials and structural analysis Units and dimensions
S.I Units
Concept of force
Concept of particle and rigid body
Non- concurrent and parallel forces in a plane
Moment of force free body diagram
Conditions of equilibrium
Principle of virtual work
Equivalent force system
First and second moment of area
Mass moment of inertia
Static friction
Kinematics and kinetics
Kinematics in cartesian co-ordinates
Motion under uniform and non-uniform acceleration
Motion under gravity
Kinetics of particle
Momentum and energy principles
Collision of elastic bodies
Rotation of rigid bodies
Simple stress and strain
Elastic constants
Axially loaded compression members
Shear force and bending moment
Theory of simple bending
Shear stress distribution across cross sections
Beams of uniform strength
Deflection of beams
Mecaulay’s method
Mohr’s moment area method
Conjugate beam method
Unit load method
Torsion of shafts
Elastic stability of columns
Euler’s, rankine’s and secant formulae
Castiglianio’s theorems i and ii
Unit load method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses
Moment distribution
Rolling loads and influences lines
Influences lines for shear force and bending moment at a section of a beam
Criteria for maximum shear force and bending moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads
Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses
Three hinged
Two hinged and fixed arches
Rib shortening and temperature effects
Matrix mehods of analysis
Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames
Plastic analysis of beams and frames
Theory of plastic bending
Plastic analysis
Statical method
Mechanism method
Unsymmetrical bending
Moment of inertia
Product of inertia
Position of neutral axis and principal axes
Calculation of bending stresses
Design of structures of steel, concrete and masonry structures Structural steel
Factors of safety and load factors
Riveted, bolted and welded joints and connections
Design of tension and compression members
Beams of built up section
Riveted and welded plate girders
Gantry girders
Stancheons with battens and lacings
Concept of mix design
Reinforced concrete
Working stress and limit state method of design
Recommendations of i. s. codes
Design of one way and two way slabs
Stair-case slabs
Simple and continuous beams of rectangular
T and l sections
Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity
Cantilever and counter fort type retaining walls
Water tanks
Design requirements for rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground
Prestressed concrete
Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages
Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress
Loss of prestress
Design of brick masonry as per i. s. codes
Fluid mechanics, open channel flow and hydraulic machines Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion
Fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces
Kinematics and dynamics of fluid flow
Velocity and accelerations
Stream lines
Equation of continuity
Irrotational and rotational flow
Velocity potential and stream functions
Energy equation
Navier stokes equation
Euler’s equation of motion
Application to fluid flow problems
Pipe flow
Sluice gates
Dimensional analysis and similitude
Buckingham’s pi-theorem
Dimensionless parameters
Laminar flow
Laminar flow between parallel
Stationary and moving plates
Flow through tube
Boundary layer
Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate
Laminar sub-layer
Smooth and rough boundaries
Drag and lift
Turbulent flow through pipes
Characteristics of turbulent flow
Velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor
Hydraulic grade line and total energy line
Open channel flow
Uniform and non-uniform flows
Momentum and energy correction factors
Specific energy and specific force
Critical depth
Rapidly varied flow
Hydraulic jump
Gradually varied flow
Classification of surface profiles
Control section
Step method of integration of varied flow equation
Hydraulic machines and hydropower
Hydraulic turbines
Types classification
Choice of turbines performance parameters
Specific speed
Principles of hydropower development
Geotechnical engineering Soil type and structure
Gradation and particle size distribution
Consistency limits
Water in soil
Capillary and structural
Effective stress and pore water pressure
Permeability concept
Filed and laboratory determination of permeability
Seepage pressure
Quick sand conditions
Shear strength determination
Mohr coulomb concept
Compaction of soil
Laboratory and filed test
Compressibility and consolidation concept
Consolidation theory
Consolidation settlement analysis
Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls
Application for sheet piles and braced excavation
Bearing capacity of soil
Approaches for analysis
Filed tests
Settlement analysis
Stability of slope of earth walk
Methods of subsuface exploration of soils
Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures
Design criteria for foundation
Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile
Pile group action
Pile load test
Ground improvement techniques
Construction technology Engineering materials
Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in construction
Stones, bricks and tiles
Different types of mortars and concrete
Specific use of ferro cement
Fibre reinforced c
High stength concrete
Properties defects
Common preservation treatments
Use and selection of materials for specific use like low cost housing
Mass housing
High rise buildings
Construction Masonry principles using brick, stone and blocks
Construction detailing and strength characteristics
Types of plastering
Roofing and construction features
Common repairs in buildings
Principle of functional planning of building for residents and specific use
Building code provisions
Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating
Specification writing and rate analysis
Principles of valuation of real property
Machinery for earthwork
Concreting and their specific uses
Factors affecting selection of equipments
Operating cost of equipments
Construction planning and management Construction activity
Organization for construction industry
Quality assurance principles
Use basic principle of network
Analysis in form of cpm and pert and their use in construction monitoring
Cost optimization and resource allocation
Basic principles of economic analysis and methods
Project profitability
Basic principles of boot approach to financial planning
Simple toll fixation criterions
Surveying and transportation engineering Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement for ce work and their use in plane table
Traverse survey
Levelling work
Contouring and topographical map
Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing
Railways engineering
Permanent way
Components, types and their function
Functions and design constituents of turn and crossing
Necessity of geometric design of track
Design of station and yards
Highway engineering
Principles of highway alignments
Classification and geometrical design elements and standards for roads
Pavement structure for flexible and rigid pavements
Design principles and methodology of pavements
Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, wbm, bituminous works and cc roads
Culvert structures of surface and sub-surface drainge arrangements for roads
Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays
Traffic surveys and their application in traffic planning
Typical design features for channelized, intersection rotary etc
Signal designs
Standard traffic signs and markings
Hydrology, water resources and engineering Hydrological cycle
Overland flow
Flood frequency analyses
Flood routing through a reservoir
Channel flow routing
Muskingam method
Ground water flow
Specific yield
Storage coefficient
Coefficient of permeability
Confined and unconfined aquifers
Radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions
Ground and surface water resources
Single and multipurpose projects
Storage capacity of reservoirs
Reservoir losses
Reservoir sedimentation
Irrigation engineering
Water requirements of crops
Consumptive use, duty and delta
Irrigation methods and their efficiencies
Distribution systems for cannal irrigation
Canal capacity
Canal losses
Alignment of main and distributory canals
Most efficient section
Lined canals and their design
Regime theory
Critical shear stress
Bed load
Water logging
Causes and control
Canal structures
Design of head regulators
Canal falls
Metering flumes and canal outlets
Diversion head work
Principles and design of weirs on permeable and impermeable foundation
Khosla’s theory
Energy dissipation
Storage works
Types of dams
Design and principles of rigid gravity stability analysis
Spillway types
River training
Objectives of river training
Methods of river training
Environmental engineering Water supply
Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance
Physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis
Waterborne diseases
Standards for potable water
Intake of water
Water treatment
Principles of coagulation
Flocculation and sedimentation
Removal of taste
Odour and salinity
Sewerage systems
Domestic and industrial wastes
Store sewage
Separate and combined systems
Flow through sewers
Design of sewers
Sewage characterisation
Dissolved oxygen
Nitrogen and toc
Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land
Sewage Treatment
Working principles
Sedimentation tank
Trickling filters
Oxidation ponds
Activated sludge process
Septic tank
Disposal of sludge
Recycling of waste water
Solid waste
Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts
Management of long-term ill-effects
Environmental pollution Sustainable development
Radioactive wastes and disposal
Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects
Air pollution
Pollution control acts
Commerce and accountancy
Financing accounting Accounting as a financial information system
Impact of behavioural sciences
Accounting standards
Accounting for depreciation
Research and development costs
Long-term construction contracts
Revenue recognition
Fixed assets
Foreign exchange transactions
Investments and government grants
Cash flow statement
Earnings per share
Accounting for share capital transactions including bonus shares, right shares
Emplyees stock option and buy-back of securities
Preparation and presentation of company final accounts
Absorption and reconstruction of companies
Cost accounting Nature and functions of cost accounting
Installation of cost accounting system
Cost concepts related to income measurement
Profit planning
Cost control and decision making
Methods of costing
Job costing
Process costing
Activity based costing
Volume-cost-profit relationship as a tool of profit planning
Incremental analysis/differential costing as a tool of pricing decisions
Product decisions
Make or buy decisions
Shut-down decisions
Techniques of cost control and cost reduction
Budgeting as a tool of planning and control
Standard costing and variance analysis
Responsibility accounting and divisional performance measurement
Taxation Definitions of income tax
Basis of charge
Incomes which do not form part of total income
Simple problems of computation of income under various heads
Set-off and carry forward of loss
Deductions from gross total income
Salient features/provisions related to vat and services tax
Auditing Company audit
Audit related to divisible profits
Special investigations
Tax audit
Audit of banking, insurance, non-profit organization and charitable societies/trusts/organizations
Finance function
Nature, scope and objectives of financial management
Risk and return relationship
Tools of financial analysis
Ratio analysis
Funds-flow and cash-flow statement
Capital budgeting decisions
Procedures and appraisal methods
Risk and uncertainty anlysis and methods
Concept of cost of capital
Computation of specific costs and weighted average cost of capital
Capm as atool of determining cost of equity capital
Financing decisions
Theories of capital structure
Net income approach
Net operating income approach
Mm approach and traditional approach
Designing of capital structure
Types of leverages
Ebit-eps analysis and other factors
Dividend decisions and valuation of firm
Walter’s model
Mm thesis
Gordan’s model and lintner’s model
Factors affecting dividend policy
Working capital management
Planning of working capital
Determinants of working capital
Components of working capital
Cash, inventory and receivables
Corporate restructuring with focus on mergers and acquisitions
Overview of indian financial system
Money markets
Structure and instruments
Commercial banks
Reforms in banking sector
Monetary and credit policy of rbi
Rbi as a regulator
Capital market
Primary and secondary market
Financial market instruments and innovative debt instruments
Sebi as a regulator
Financial services
Mutual funds
Venture capital
Credit rating agencies
Insurance and irda
Organisation theory Nature and concept of organisation
External environment of organisation
Technological, social, political, ecomomical and legal
Organizational goals primary and secondary goals
Single and multiple goals
Management by objectives
Evolution of organisation theory
Classical neoclassical and system approach
Modern concepts of organisation theory
Organisational design
Organisational structure and organisational culture
Basic challenges
Differentiation and intergration process
Centralization and decentralization process
Standardization/formalization and mutual adjustment
Coordinating formal and informal organizations
Mechanistic and organic structures
Designing organizational structures
Authority and control
Line and staff functions
Specialization and coordination
Types of organization structure
Matrix structure
Project structure
Nature and basis of power
Sources of power
Power structure and politics
Impact of information technology on organizational design and structure
Managing organizational culture
Organisation behaviour Meaning and concept
Individual in organization
Individual in organization: personality
Theories and determinants
Pereception meaning and process
concepts of motivation
Theories and applications
Theories and styles of leadership
Quality of work life
Meaning and its impact on performance
Ways of its enhancement
Quality circles
Meaning and their importance
Management of conflicts in organizations
Transactional analysis
Organizational effectiveness
Management of change
Human resources management Meaning nature and scope of hrm
Human Resource Planning
Job analysis
Job description
Job specification
Recruitment process
Selection process
Orientational and placement
Training and development process
Performance appraisal and 360° feed back
Salary and wage administration
Job evaluation
Employee welfare
Transfers and separations
Industrial relations Meaning and nature of industrial relations
Importance and scope of ir
Formation of trade union
Trade union legislation
Trade union movement in india
Recognition of trade unions
Problems of trade unions in india
Impact of liberalization on trade union movement
Nature of industrial disputes
Strikes and lockouts
Causes of disputes
Prevention and settlement of disputes
Worker’s participation in management
Present day status and future prospects
Adjudication and collective bargaining
Industrial relations in public enterprises absenteeism and labour turnover in indian industries and their causes and remedies
Ilo and its functions
Advanced micro economics Marshallian and varrasiam approaches to price determination
Alternative distribution theories
Ricardo, kaldor and kaleeki
Markets structure
Monopolistic competition
Modern welfare criteria
Pareto hicks and scitovsky
Arrow’s impossibility theorem
A. k. sen’s social welfare function
Advance macro economics Approaches to employment income and interest rate determination
Keynes curve
Neo-classical synthesis and new classical
Theories of interest rate determination and interest rate structure
Money-banking and finance Demand for and supply of money
Money multiplier
Quantity theory of money and keyne’s theory on demand for money
Goals and instruments of monetary management in closed and open economies
Relation between the central bank and the treasury
Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money
Public finance and its role in market economy
Public finance and its role in market economy: in stabilisation of supply
Public finance and its role in market economy: in stabilisation of allocative
Of resources and in distribution and development
Sources of government revenue
Forms of taxes and subsidies and their incidence and effects
Limits to taxation
Crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings
Public expenditure and its effects
International economics Old and new theories of international trade
Comparative advantage
Terms of trade and offer curve
Product cycle and strategic trade theories
Trade as an engine of growth and theories of underdevelopment in an open economy
Forms of protection
Tariff and quota
Balance of payments adjustment
Alternative approaches
Price versus income
Income adjustments under fixed exchange rates
Theories of policy mix
Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility
Floating rates and their implications for developing countries
Currency boards
Trade policy and developing countries
Adjustments and policy coordination in open economy macromodel
Speculative attacks
Trade blocks and monetary unions
Domestic measures
Different rounds of wto talks
Growth and development Theories of growth
Harrod’s model
Lewis model of development with surplus labour
Balanced unbalanced growth
Human capitals and economic growth
Research and development and economic growth
Process of economic development of less developed courtries
Myrdal and kuzments on economic development and structural change
Role of agriculture in economic development of less developed countries
Economic development and international trade and investment
Role of multinationals
Planning and economic development
Changing role of markets and planning
Private-public partnership
Welfare indicators and measures of growth
Human development indices
The basic needs approach
Development and environmental sustainability
Renewable and non-renewable resources
Environmental degradation
Intergenerational equity development
Indian economics in post-independence era Land system and its changes
Commercialization of agriculture drain theory
Laissez faire theory and critique
Manufacture and transport
Jute, cotton, railways, money and credit
Indian economy after independence The pre-liberalization era
Contribution of vakil, gadgil and v.k.r.v. rao
Land reforms and land tenure system
Green revolution and capital formation in agriculture
Industry trends in composition and growth
Role of public and private sector
Small scale and cottage industries
National and per capita income
National and per capita income: patterns
National and per capita income: trends
Aggregate and sectoral composition and changes therein
Broad factors determining national income and distribution
Measures of poverty
Trends in poverty and inequality
The post-liberalization era
New economic reform and agriculture
Agriculture and wto
Food processing
Agricultural prices and public distribution system
Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth
New economic policy and industry
Strategy of industrialization
Role of foreign direct investment and multinationals
New economic policy and trade
Intellectual property rights
Implications of trips, trims, gats and new exim policy
New exchange rate regime
Partial and full convertibility
Capital account convertibility
New economic policy and public finance
Fiscal responsibility act
Twelfth finance commission and fiscal federalism and fiscal consolidation
New economic policy and monetary system
Role of rbi under the new regime
Planning: from central planning to indivative planning
Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning
73rd and 74th constitutional amendments
New economic policy and employment
Employment and poverty
Rural wages
Employment generation
Poverty alleviation schemes
New rural
Employment guarantee scheme
Electrical engineering
Theory of circuits Circuit components
Network graphs
Kcl and kvl
Circuit analysis methods
Nodal analysis
Mesh analysis
Basic network theorems and applications
Transient analysis
Rl, rc and rlc circuits
Sinusoidal steady state analysis
Resonant circuits
Coupled circuits
Balanced 3-phase circuits
Two-port networks
Signals and systems Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems
Lti systems
Impulse response
Time-domain analysis of lti systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations
Fourier transform
Laplace transform
Transfer function
Sampling and recovery of signals dft
Fft processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems
E.M. theory Maxwell's equations
Wave propagation in bounded media
Boundary conditions
Reflection and refraction of plane waves
Transmission lines
Travelling and standing waves
Impedance matching
Smith chart
Analog electronics Characteristics and equivalent circuits of diode
Bjt, jfet and mosfet
Diode circuits
Biasing and bias stability
Fet amplifiers
Current mirror
Single and multi-stage
Operational feedback and power
Analysis of amplifiers
Frequency-response of amplifiers
Opamp circuits
Single transistor and opamp configurations
Function generators and wave-shaping circuits
Linear and switching power supplies
Digital electronics Boolean algebra
Minimisation of boolean functions
Logic gates
Digital ic families
Combinational circuits
Arithmetic circuits
Code converters
Multiplexers and decoders
Sequential circuits
Latches and flip-flops
Counters and shift-registers
Sample and hold circuits
Adcs and dacs
Semiconductor memories: RAM, ROM, storage devices, printer, connectors, floppy drives, organization of computer, simple programme
Logic implementation using programmable devices
Energy conversion Principles of electromechanical energy conversion
Torque and emf in rotating machines
DC machines
Characteristics and performance analysis
Starting and speed control of motors
Principles of operation and analysis
3-phase transformers
3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines
Speed control
Power electronics and electric drives Semi-conductor power devices
Gto and mosfet-static characteristics and principles of operation
Triggering circuits
Phase control rectifiers
Bridge converters
Fully-controlled and half-controlled
Principles of thyristor choppers and inverters
Dc-dc converters
Switch mode inverter
Basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives
Analog communication Random variables
Probability functions
Statistical averages
Probability models
Random signals and noise
White noise
Noise equivalent bandwidth
Signal transmission with noise
Signal to noise ratio
Linear cw modulation
Amplitude modulation
Dsb, dsb-sc and ssb
Modulators and demodulators
Phase and frequency modulation
Pm & fm signals
Narrows band fm
Generation and detection of fm and pm
Cw modulation system
Superhetrodyne receivers
Am receivers
Communication receivers
Fm receivers
Phase locked loop
Ssb receiver signal to noise ratio calculation or am and fm receivers
Control systems Elements of control systems
Block-diagram representations
Open-loop and closed-loop systems
Principles and applications of feed-back
Control system components
Lti systems
Time-domain and transform-domain analysis
Routh Hurwitz criterion
Bode-plots and polor plots
Nyquist’s criterion
Design of lead-lad compensators
Pid controllers
State-variable representation and analysis of control systems
Microprocessors and microcomputers Pc organisation
Instruction set
Register settiming diagram
Memory interfacing
I/o interfacing
Programmable peripheral devices
Measurement and instrumentation Error analysis
Measurement of current voltage
Capacitance and frequency
Bridge measurements
Signal conditioning circuit
Electronic measuring instruments
Digital voltmeter
Frequency counter
Piezo-electric crystal
Power systems - analysis and control Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables
Principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution
Per-unit quantities
Bus admittance and impedance matrices
Load flow
Voltage control and power factor correction
Economic operation
Symmetrical components
Analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults
Concepts of system stability
Swing curves and equal area criterion
Static var system
Basic concepts of hvdc transmission
Power system protection Principles of overcurrent
Differential and distance protection
Concept of solid state relays
Circuit brakers
Introduction of computer aided protection
Line, bus, generator and transformer protection
Numeric relays and application of dsp to protection
Digital communication Pulse code modulation
Defferential pulse code modulation
Delta modulation
Digital modulation and demodulation schemes
Amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes
Error control coding
Error detection and correction
Linear block codes
Convolation codes
Information measure and source coding
Data networks
7-layer architecture
Physical geography Geomorphology
Factors controlling landform development
Endogenetic and exogenetic forces
Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts
Fundamentals of geomagnetism
Physical conditions of the earth’s interior
Continental drift
Plate tectonics
Recent views on mountain building
Earthquakes and tsunamis
Concepts of geomorphic cycles and land scape development
Denudation chronology
Channel morphology
Erosion surfaces
Slope development
Applied geomorphology
Economic geology and environment
Temperature and pressure belts of the world
Heat budget of the earth
Atmospheric circulation
Atmospheric stability and instability
Planetary and local winds
Monsoons and jet streams
Air masses and fronto
Temperate and tropical cyclones
Types and distribution of precipitation
Weather and climate
Koppen’s thornthwaite’s and trewar tha’s classification ofworld climate
Hydrological cycle
Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes applied climatology and urban climate
Bottom topography of the atlantic
Indian and pacific oceans
Temperature and salinity of the oceans
Heat and salt budgets
Ocean deposits
Currents and tides
Marine resources
Mineral and energy resources
Coral reefs coral bleaching
Sea-level changes
Law of the sea and marine pollution
Genesis of soils
Classification and distribution of soils
Soil profile
Soil erosion
Degradation and conservation
Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals
Problems of deforestation and conservation measures
Social forestry
Wild life
Major gene pool centres
Environmental geography
Principle ecology
Human ecological adaptations
Influence of man on ecology and environment
Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances
Ecosystem their management and conservation
Environmental degradation
Management and conservation
Biodiversity and sustainable development
Environmental policy
Environmental hazards and remedial measures
Environmental education and legislation
Human geography Perspectives in human geography
Areal differentiation
Regional synthesis
Dichotomy and dualism
Quantitative revolution and locational analysis
Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches
Languages, religions and secularisation
Cultural regions of the world
Human development indix
Economic geography
World economic development
Measurement and problems
World resources and their distribution
Energy crisis
The limits to growth
World agriculture
Typology of agricultural regions
Agricultural inputs and productivity
Food and nutritions problems
Food security
Causes, effects and remedies
World industries
Location patterns and problems
Patterns of world trade
Population and settlement geography
Growth and distribution of world population
Demographic attributes
Causes and consequences of migration
Concepts of over-under-and optimum population
Population theories
World population problems and policies
Social well-being and quality of life
Population as social capital
Types and patterns of rural settlements
Environmental issues in rural settlements
Hierarchy of urban settlements
Urban morphology
Concept of primate city and rank-size rule
Functional classification of towns
Sphere of urban influence
Rural-urban fringe
Satellite towns
Problems and remedies of urbanization
Sustainable development of cities
Regional planning
Concept of a region
Types of regions and methods of regionalisation
Growth centres and growth poles
Regional imbalances
Regional development strategies
Environmental issues in regional planning
Planning for sustainable development
Models, theories and laws in human geography
System analysis in human geography
Malthusian, marxian and demographic transition models
Central place theories of christaller and losch
Perroux and boudeville
Von thunen’s model of agricultural location
Weber’s model of industrial location
Ostov’s model of stages of growth
Heart-land and rimland theories
Laws of international boundaries and frontiers
Geography of India Physical setting
Space relationship of india with neighbouring countries
Structure and relief
Drainage system and watersheds
Physiographic regions
Mechanism of indian monsoons and rainfall patterns
Tropical cyclones and western disturbances
Floods and droughts
Climatic regions
Natural vegetation
Soil types and their distributions
Land, surface and ground water
Energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources
Forest and wild life resources and their conservation
Energy crisis
Institutional factors
Land holdings, land tenure and land reforms
Cropping pattern
Agricultural productivity
Agricultural intensity
Crop combination
Land capability
Agro and socialforestry
Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications
Significance of dry farming
Livestock resources and white revolution
Agriculture and poultry
Agricultural regionalisation
Agro-climatic zones
Agro-ecological regions
Evolution of industries
Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper
Chemical and pharmaceutical
Automobile, cottage and ago-based industries
Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings
Industrial regionalisation
New industrial policy
Multinationals and liberalisation
Special economic zones
Tourism including ecotourism
Transport, communication and trade
Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development
Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade
Trade balance
Trade policy
Export processing zones
Developments in communicationand information technology and their impacts on economy and society
Indian space programme
Cultural setting
Historical perspective of indian society
Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities
Religious minorities
Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems
Cultural regions
Growth, distribution and density of population
Demographic attributes
Age structure
Literacy rate
Dependency ratio
Interregional, interaregional and international migration and associated problems
Population problems and policies
Health indicators
Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements
Urban developments
Morphology of indian cities
Functional classification of indian cities
Conurbations and metropolitan regions
Urban sprawl
Slums and asssociated problems
Town planning
Problems of urbanisation and remedies
Regional development and planning
Experience of regional planning in india
Five year plans
Integrated rural development programmes
Panchayati raj and decentralised planning
Command area development
Watershed management
Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone and hill tribal area development
Multi-level planning
Regional planning and development of island territories
Political aspects
Geographical basis of indian federalism
State reorganisation
Emergence of new states
Regional consciousness and inter-state issues
International boundary of india and related issues
Cross-border terrorism
India’s role in world affairs
Geopolitics of south asia and indian ocean realm
Contemporary issues
Ecological issues
Environmental hazards
Environmental hazards: landslides
Environmental hazards: earthquakes
Environmental hazards: tsunamis
Environmental hazards: floods and droughts
Environmental hazards: epidemics
Issues related to environmental pollution
Changes in patterns of land use
Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management
Population explosion and food security
Environmental degradation
Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion
Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest
Regional disparities in economic development
Concept of sustainable growth and development
Environmental awareness
Linkage of rivers
Globalisation and indian economy
General geology The solar system, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth
Causes and products of volcanoes
Volcanic belts
Causes, effects, seismic of zone of india
Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges
Continental drift
Seafloor spreading
Plate tectonics
Geomorphology and remote sensing Basic concepts of geomorphology
Weathering and soil formations
Landforms, slopes and drainage
Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation
Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology
Coastal geomorphology
Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting
Civil engineering
Hydrology and environmental studies
Geomorphology of indian sub-continent
Aerial photographs and their interpretation
Merits and limitations
The electromagnetic spectrum
Orbiting satellites and sensor systems
Indian remote sensing satellites
Satellite data products
Applications of remote sensing in geology
The geographic information system and global positioning system and its applications
Structural geology Principles of geologic mapping and map reading
Projection diagrams
Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic
Plastic and viscous materials
Strain markers in deformed rocks
Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions
Folds and faults classification and mechanics
Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities
Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation
Palaeontology Definition and nomenclature of species
Megafossils and microfossils
Modes of preservation of fossils
Different kinds of microfossils
Application of microfossils in correlation
Petroleum exploration
Paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies
Evolutionary trend in hominidae, equidae and proboscidae
Siwalik fauna
Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance
Index fossils and their significance
Indian stratigraphy Classification of stratigraphic sequences
Chrono-stratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships
Distribution end classification of precambrian rocks of india
Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of phanerozoic rocks of india with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance
Major boundary problems
Cretaceous/tertiary and pliocene/pleistocene
Study of climatic conditions
Paleogeography and igneous activity in the indian subcontinent in the geological past
Tectonic framework of india
Evolution of the himalayas
Hydrogeology and engineering geology Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water
Movement of subsurface water
Hydraulic conductivity
Transmissivity and storage coefficient
Classification of aquifers
Water-bearing characteristics of rocks
Groundwater chemistry
Salt water intrusion
Types of wells, steady flow through wells
Drainage basin morphometry
Exploration for groundwater
Groundwater recharge
Problems and management of groundwater
Rainwater harvesting
Engineering properties of rocks
Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges
Rock as construction material
Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation
Earthquake-resistant structures
Mineralogy Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry
International system of crystallographic notation
Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry
Elements of x-ray crystallography
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups
Structural classification of silicates
Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks
Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups
Clay minerals
Optical properties of common rock forming minerals
Extinction angle
Double refraction
Twinning and dispersion in minerals
Igneous and metamorphic petrology Generation and crystallisation of magmas
Crystallisation of albite-anorthite
Diopside-anorthite and diopside
Silica systems of wollastonite
Bowen's reaction principle
Magmatic differentiation and assimilation
Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks
Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks
Deccan volcanic province
Types and agents of metamorphism
Metamorphic grades and zones
Phase rule
Facies of regional and contact metamorphism
Acf and akf diagrams
Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks
Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks
Minerals assemblages
Retrograde metamorphism
Metasomatism and granitisation
Granulite terrains of india
Sedimentary petrology Sedimentas and sedimentary rocks
Processes of formation
Digenesis and lithification
Clastic and non-clastic rocks and their classification
Petrography and depositional environment
Sedimentary facies and provenance
Sedimentary structures and their significance
Heavy minerals and their significance
Sedimentary basins of india
Economic geology
Ore, ore mineral and gangue
Tenor of ore
Classification of ore deposits
Processes of formation of mineral deposits
Controls of ore localisation
Ore texures and structures
Metallogenic epochs and provinces
Geology of the important indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals
Deposits of coal and petroleum in india
National mineral policy
Conservation and utilization of mineral resources
Marine mineral resources and law of sea
Mining geology Methods of prospecting
Geochemical and geobotanical
Techniques of sampling
Estimation of reserves of ore
Methods of exploration and mining-metallic ores
Industrial minerals
Marine mineral resources and building stones
Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing
Geochemistry and environmental geology
Cosmic abundance of elements
Composition of the planets and meteorites
Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements
Trace elements
Elements of crystal chemistry
Types of chemical bonds
Co-ordination number
Isomorphism and polymorphism
Elementary thermodynamics
Natural hazards
Mass wasting
Costal hazards
Earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation
Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal
Use of fertilizers
Dumping of mine waste and fly-ash
Pollution of ground and surface water
Marine pollution
Environment protection
Legislative measures in india
Sea level changes
Causes and impact
Sources Archaeological sources
Literary sources
Primary and secondary indigenous
Scientific literature
Literature in regional languages
Religious literature
Foreign account
Greek, chinese and arab writers
Pre-history and proto-history Geographical factors
Hunting and gathering
Beginning of agriculture
Indus valley civilization Origin
Survival and significance
Art and architecture
Megalithic cultures Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the indus
Development of community life
Development of agriculture
Crafts, pottery, and iron industry
Aryans and Vedic period Expansions of aryans in india
Vedic period
Religious and philosophic literature
Transformation from rig vedic period to the later vedic period
Political, social and economical life
Significance of the vedic age
Evolution of monarchy and varna system
Period of Mahajanapadas Formation of states
Republics and monarchies
Rise of urban centres
Trade routes
Economic growth
Introduction of coinage
Spread of jainism and buddism
Rise of magadha and nandas
Iranian and mecedonian invasions and their impact
Mauryan empire Foundation of the mauryan empire
Chandragupta, kautilya and arthashastra
Concept of dharma
Art, architecture and sculpture
External contacts
Spread of religion
Disintegration of the empire
Sungas and kanvas
Post-Mauryan period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, western Kshatrapas) Contact with outside world
Growth of urban centres
Development of religions
Social conditions
Literature and science
Early state and society in eastern India, Deccan and south India Kharavela
The satavahanas
Tamil states of the sangam age
Land grants
Trade guilds and urban centres
Buddhist centres
Sangam literature and culture
Art and architecture
Guptas, Vakatakas And Vardhanas Polity and administration
Economic conditions
Coinage of the guptas
Land grants
Decline of urban centres
Indian feudalism
Caste system
Position of women
Education and educational institutions
Nalanda, vikramshila and vallabhi
Scientific literature, art and architecture
Regional states during Gupta era The kadambas
Chalukyas of badami
Polity and administration
Trade guilds
Growth of vaishnava and saiva religions
Tamil bhakit movement
Institutions of temple and temple architecture
Palas, senas, rashtrakutas, paramaras, polity and administration
Cultural aspects
Arab conquest of sind
The chaluky as of kalyana
Local government
Growth of art and architecture
Religious sects
Institution of temple and mathas, agraharas, education and literature, economy and society
Themes in early Indian cultural history Languages and texts
Major stages in the evolution of art and architecture
Major philosophical thinkers and schools
Ideas in science and mathematics
Early medieval India, 750-1200 Major political developments in northern india and the peninsula, origin and the rise of rajputs
Administration, village economy and society “indian feudalism”
Agrarian economy and urban settlements
Trade and commerce
The status of the brahman and the new social order
Condition of women
Indian science and technology
Cultural traditions in India, 750-1200 Skankaracharya and vedanta, ramanuja and vishishtadvaita, madhva and brahma-mimansa
Forms and features of religion, tamil devotional cult, growth of bhakti, islam and its arrival in india, sufism
Literature in sanskrit, growth of tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, kalhan's rajtarangini, alberuni's india
Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
The thirteenth century The ghurian invasions - factors behind ghurian success
Economic, social and cultural consequences
Foundation of delhi sultanate and early turkish sultans
The rule of iltutmish and balban
The fourteenth century The khalji revolution
Alauddin khalji - conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure
Muhammad tughluq - major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of muhammad tughluq
Firuz tugluq - agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the sultanate, foreign contacts and ibn battuta's account
Society, culture and economy in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Society
Composition of rural society
Ruling classes
Town dwellers
Religious classes
Caste and slavery under the sultanate
Bhakti movement
Sufi movement
Persian literature
Literature in the regional languages of north india
Literaute in the languages of south india
Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
Agricultural production
Rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production
Trade and commerce
The fifteenth and early sixteenth century-political developments and economy Rise of provincial dynasties
Bengal, kashmir and gujarat
Malwa and bahmanids
The vijayanagara empire
Mughal empire and first phase of babur and humayun
The sur empire
Sher shah’s administration
Portuguese colonial enterprise
Bhakti and sufi movements
The fifteenth and early sixteenth century- society and culture Regional cultures specificities
Literary traditions
Provincial architectural
Literature and the arts in vijayanagara empire
Akbar Conquests and consolidation of empire
Establishment of jagir and mansab systems
Rajput policy
Evolution of religious and social outlook
Theory of sulh-i-kul and religious policy
Court patronage of art and technology
Mughal empire in the seventeenth century Major administrative policies of jahangir
Shahjahan and aurangzeb
The empire and the zamindars
Religious policies of jahangir, shahjahan and aurangzeb
Nature of the mughal state
Late seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
The ahom kingdom
Shivaji and the early maratha kingdom
Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th centuries Population agricultural and craft production
Towns, commerce with europe through dutch, english and french companies
A trade revolution
Indian mercantile classes
Banking, insurance and credit systems
Conditions of peasants
Condition of women
Evolution of the sikh community and the khalsa panth
Culture during Mughal empire Persian histories and other literature
Hindi and religious literatures
Mughal architecture
Mughal painting
Provincial architecture and painting
Classical music
Science and technology
The eighteenth century Factors for the decline of the mughal empire
The regional principalities
Nizam’s deccan, bengal and awadh
Maratha ascendancy under the peshwas
The maratha fiscal and financial system
Emergence of afghan power battle of panipat, 1761
State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the british conquest
European penetration into India The early european settlements
The portuguese and the dutch
The english and the french east india companies
Their struggle for supremacy
Carnatic wars
The conflict between the english and the nawabs of bengal
Siraj and the english
The battle of plassey
Significance of plassey
British expansion in India Bengal-mir jafar and mir kasim
The battle of buxar
The marathas
The three anglo-maratha wars
The punjab
Early structure of the British raj The early administrative structure
From diarchy to direct contol
The regulating act (1773)
The pitt's india act (1784);
The charter act (1833);
The voice of free trade and the changing character of british colonial rule
The english utilitarian and india
Economic impact of British colonial rule Land revenue settlements in british india
The permanent settlement
Ryotwari settlement
Mahalwari settlement
Economic impact of the revenue arrangements
Commercialization of agriculture
Rise of landless agrarian labourers
Impoverishment of the rural society
Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce
Decline of traditional crafts
Drain of wealth
Economic transformation of india
Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services
Famine and poverty in the rural interior
European business enterprise and its limitations
Social and cultural developments The state of indigenous education and its dislocation
Orientalist-anglicist controversy
The introduction of western education in india
The rise of press
Literature and public opinion
The rise of modern vernacular literature
Progress of science
Christian missionary activities in india
Social and religious reform movements in Bengal and other areas Ram mohan roy
The brahmo movement
Devendranath tagore
Iswarchandra vidyasagar
The young bengal movement
Dayanada saraswati
The social reform movements in india
The contribution of indian renaissance to the growth of modern india
Islamic revivalism-the feraizi and wahabi movements
Indian response to British rule Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the rangpur dhing (1783)
The kol rebellion (1832)
The mopla rebellion in malabar (1841-1920)
The santal hul (1855)
Indigo rebellion (1859-60)
Deccan uprising (1875) and the munda ulgulan (1899-1900)
The great revolt of 1857 - origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences
The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post 1857 period
The peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s
Factors leading to the birth of indian nationalism
Politics of association
The foundation of the indian national congress
The safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the congress
Programme and objectives of early congress
The social composition of early congress leadership
The moderates and extremists
The partition of bengal (1905)
The swadeshi movement in bengal
The economic and political aspects of swadeshi movement
The beginning of revolutionary extremism in india
Rise of gandhi
Character of gandhian nationalism
Gandhi's popular appeal
Rowlatt satyagraha
The khilafat movement
The non-cooperation movement
National politics from the end of the non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the civil disobedience movement
The two phases of the civil disobedience movement
Simon commission
The nehru report
The round table conferences
Nationalism and the peasant movements
Nationalism and working class movements
Women and indian youth and students in indian politics (1885-1947)
The election of 1937 and the formation of ministries
Cripps mission
The quit india movement
The wavell plan
The cabinet mission
Constitutional developments in the colonial india between 1858 and 1935
Other strands in the national movement
The revolutionaries
Bengal, the punjab, maharashtra, u.p. the madras presidency, outside india
The left within the congress
Jawaharlal nehru, subhas chandra bose and the congress socialist party
The communist party of india, other left parties
Politics of separatism
The muslim league
The hindu mahasabha
Communalism and the politics of partition
Transfer of power
Consolidation as a nation
Nehru's foreign policy
India and her neighbours (1947-1964)
The linguistic reorganisation of states (1935-1947)
Regionalism and regional inequality
Integration of princely states
Princes in electoral politics
The question of national language
Caste and ethnicity after 1947
Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics
Dalit movements
Economic development and political change
Land Reforms
The politics of planning and rural reconstruction
Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial india
Progress of science
Enlightenment and modern ideas Major ideas of enlightenment - kant, rousseau
Spread of enlightenment in the colonies
Rise of socialist ideas
Spread of marxian socialism
Origins of modern politics European states system
American revolution and the constitution
French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815
American civil war with reference to abraham lincoln and the abolition of slavery
British democratic politics, 1815-1850
Parliamentary reformers
Free traders
Industrialization English industrial revolution
Causes and impact on society
Industrialization in other countries
Usa, germany, russia, japan
Industrialization and globalization
Nation-state system Rise of nationalism in 19th century
State-building in germany and italy
Disintegration of empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world
Imperialism and colonialism South and south-east asia
Latin america and south africa
Imperialism and free trade
Rise of neo-imperialism
Revolution and counter-revolution 19th century european revolutions
The russian revolution of 1917-1921
Fascist counter-revolution
Italy and germany
The chinese revolution of 1949
World wars 1st and 2nd world wars as total wars
Societal implications
Causes and consequences of world war i
Causes and consequences of world war ii
The world after world war II Emergence of two power blocs
Emergence of third world and non-alignment
Uno and the global disputes
Uno and the global disputes Latin america-bolivar
Arab world-egypt
Africa-apartheid to democracy
South-east asia-vietnam
Decolonization and underdevelopment Factors constraining development - latin america, africa
Unification of Europe Post war foundations
Nato and european community
Consolidation and expansion of european community
European union
Disintegration of soviet union and the rise of the unipolar world Factors leading to the collapse of soviet communism and soviet union, 1985-1991
Political changes in east europe 1989-2001
End of the cold war and us ascendancy in the world as the lone superpower
Constitutional and administrative law Constitution and constitutionalism
The distinctive features of the constitution
Fundamental rights
Public interest litigation
Legal aid
Legal services authority
Relationship between fundamental rights
Directive principles and fundamental duties
Constitutional position of the president and relation with the council of ministers
Governor and his powers
Supreme court and the high courts
Appointments and transfer
Powers, functions and jurisdiction
Centre, states and local bodies
Distribution of legislative powers between the union and the states
Local bodies
Administrative relationship among union, state and local bodies
Eminent domain
State property
Common property
Community property
Legislative powers, privileges and immunities
Services under the union and the states
Recruitment and conditions of services
Constitutional safeguards
Administrative Tribunals
Union public service commission and state public service commissions
Power and functions
Election commission
Emergency provisions
Amendment of the constitution
Principle of natural justice
Emerging trends and judicial approach
Delegated legislation and its constitutionality
Separation of powers and constitutional governance
Judicial review of administrative action
Ombudsman - lokayukta, lokpal etc
International law Nature and definition of international law
Relationship between international law and municipal law
State recognition and state succession
Law of the sea
Inland waters
Territorial sea
Contiguous zone
Continental shelf
Exclusive economic zone and high seas
Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement
Heat and internal energy
Extradition and asylum
Formation and application of treaties
Termination and reservation
United nations and its principal organs
Powers and functions and reform
Different modes of peaceful settlement of disputes
Lawful recourse to force
Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law
International conventions and contemporary developments
Legality of the use of nuclear weapons
Ban on testing of nuclear weapons
Nuclear non-proliferation treaty
International terrorism
State sponsored terrorism
International criminal court
New international economic order and monetary law
Wto, trips, gatt, imf and world bank
International efforts of protection and improvement of the human environment
Law of crimes General principles of criminal liability
Mens rea and actus reus
Mens rea in statutory offences
Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment
Preparations and criminal attempt
General exceptions
Joint and constructive liability
Criminal conspiracy
Offences against the state
Offences against public tranquility
Offences against human body
Offences against property
Offences against women
Prevention of corruption act, 1988
Protection of civil rights act, 1955 and subsequent legislative developments
Plea bargaining
Law of torts Nature and definition
Liability based upon fault and strict liability
Absolute liability
Vicarious liability including state liability
General defences
Joint tort fessors
False imprisonment
Malicious prosecution
Consumer protection act, 1986
Law of contracts and mercantile law Nature and formation of contract/e-contract
Factors vitiating free consent
Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements
Performance and discharge of contracts
Consequences of breach of contract
Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance
Contract of agency
Sale of goods and hire purchase
Formation and dissolution of partnership
Negotiable instruments act, 1881
Arbitration and conciliation act, 1996
Standard form contracts
Contemporary legal developments Public interest litigation
Concept and types/prospects of intellectual property rights
Concept and purpose/prospects of information technology law including cyber laws
Concept and purpose/prospects of competition law
Concept and types/prospects of alternate dispute resolution
Major statutes concerning environmental law
Right to information act
Trial by media
Language History of the origin and development of the assamese language and its position among the indo-aryan language and periods in its history
Development of assamese prose
Vowels and consonants of the assamese language
Rules of phonetic changes with stress on assamese coming down from old indo-aryan
Assamese vocabulary and its sources
Morphology of the language
Enclitic definitives and pleonastic suffixes
Dilectical divergences
The standard colloquial and the kamrupi dialect in particular
Assamese script and its evolution through the ages till 19th century a.d.
Literary criticism and literary history Principles of literary criticism up to new criticism
Different literary genres
Development of literary forms in assamese
Development of literary criticism in assamese
Periods of the literary history of assam from the earliest beginnings
The proto assamese pre-sankaradeva
Modern period
Post-independence period
Special emphasis is to be given on the vaisnavite period
The gonaki and the post-independence periods
The history of Bangla language The chronological track from proto indo-european to bangla
Historical stages of bangla and their linguistic features
Dialects of bangla and their distinguishing characteristics
Elements of bangla vocabulary
Forms of bangla literary prose-sadhu and chalit
Processes of language change relevant for bangla
Adi svaragama
Heat and internal energy
Antya svaragama
Y-shruti and w-shruti
Problems of standardization and reform of alphabet and spelling, and those of transliteration and romanization
Phonology, morphology and syntax of modern bangla
The history of Bangla literature Periodization of bangla literature
Old bangla and middle bangla
Points of difference between modern and pre-modern bangla literature
Roots and reasons behind the emergence of modernity in bangla literature
Evolution of various middle bangla forms
Mangal kavyas
Vaishnava lyrics
Adapted narratives and religious biographies
Secular forms in middle bangla literature
Narrative and lyric trends in the nineteenth century bangla poetry
Development of prose
Bangla dramatic literature
Tagore and post-tagoreans
Fiction and major authors
Women and bangla literature
Creators and created
Bodo language and literature
History of Bodo language Homeland, language family and its present status and its mutual contact with assamese
Vowel and consonant phonemes
Gender, case and case endings
Plural suffix
Verbal suffix
Vocabulary and its sources
Types of sentences
Word order
History of scripts used in writing bodo language since inception
History of Bodo literature General introduction of bodo folk literature
Contribution of the missionaries
Periodization of bodo literature
Critical analysis of different genre
Translation literature
History of Dogri language Dogri language
Origin and development through different stages
Linguistic boundaries of dogri and its dialects
Characteristic features of dogri language
Structure of dogri langauge
Sound structure
Vowels and consonants
Tone and junture
Morphology of Dogri Inflection categories
Tense and voice
Word formation
Use of prefixes, infixes and suffixes
Foreign and regional
Sentence structure
Major sentence and types and their constituents
Agreement and concord in dogri syntax
Dogri language and scripts
Dogre/dogra akkhar
Devanagari and persia
A brief account of pre-independence dogri literature - poetry & prose
Development of modern dogri poetry and main trends in dogri poetry
Development of dogri short-story, main trends and prominent short-story writers
Development of dogri novel, main trends and contribution of dogri novelists
Development of dogri drama and contribution of prominent playwrights
Development of dogri prose
Essays, memoirs and travelogues
An introduction to dogri folk literature
Folk songs and folk tales 7 ballads
Poetry Azadi paihle di dogri kavita
Modern dogri poetry
Sheeraza dogri number 102, ghazal ank
Sheeraza dogri number 147, ghazal ank
Ramayan by shambhu nath sharma
Veer gulab by dinoo bhai pant
Ajakani dogri kahani
Ajakani dogri kahani part ii
Khatha kunj bhag ii
Meel patthar by bandhu sharma
Kaiddi by desh bandhu dogra nutan
Nanga rukkh by o.p. sharma sarathi
Nayaan by mohan singh
Dogri lalit nibandh
Gujarati language - form and history History of gujarati language with special reference to new indo-aryan
Significant features of the gujarati language
Phonology, morphology and syntax
Major dialects
Charotari and saurashtri
History of Guajarati literature - medieval Jaina tradition
Bhakti tradition
Sagun and nirgun
Non-sectarian tradition
History of Guajarati literature - modern Sudharak yug
Pandit yug
Gandhi yug
Anu-gandhi yug
Adhunik yug
Literary forms Salient features
History and development of the following literary forms
Narratives - rasa, akhyan and padyavarta
Lyrical - pada
Fiction - novel and short story
Literary essay
Lyrical poetry
Criticism History of theoretical gujarati criticism
Recent research in folk tradition
Medieval Vasantvilas phagu - ajnatkrut
Kadambari - bhalan
Sudamacharitra - premanand
Chandrachandravatini varta - shamal
Akhegeeta - akho
Sudharakyug and Pandityug Mari hakikat - narmadasha
Farbasveerah - dalpatram
Saraswatichandra part 1 - govardhanram tripathi
Purvalap - ‘kant’
Raino parvat - ramanbhai neelkanth
Gandhiyug and Anu Gandhiyug Hind swaraj - mohandas karamchand gandhi
Patanni prabhuta - kanhaiyalal munshi
Kavyani shakti - ramnarayan vishwanath pathak
Saurashtrani rasdhar part 1 - zaverchand meghani
Manvini bhavai - pannalal patel
Dhvani - rajendra shah
Adhunik yug Saptapadi - umashankar joshi
Janantike - suresh joshi
Ashwatthama - sitanshu yashaschandra
History of Hindi language and Nagari lipi Grammatical and applied forms of apbhransh, awahatta and arambhik hindi
Development of braj and awadhi as literary language during medieval period
Early form of khari-boli in siddha-nath sahitya, khusero, sant sahitaya, rahim etc. and dakhni hindi
Development of khari-boli and nagari lipi during 19th century
Standardisation of hindi bhasha and nagari lipi
Development of hindi as a national language during freedom movement
The development of hindi as a national language of union of india
Scientific and technical development of hindi language
Prominent dialects of hindi and their inter-relationship
Salient features of nagari lipi and the efforts for its reform and standard form of hindi
Grammatical structure of standard hindi
History of Hindi literature The relevance and importance of hindi literature and tradition of writing history of hindi literature
Literary trends of the following four periods of history of hindi literature
Adikal - sidh
Nath and raso sahitya
Prominent poets - chandvardai
Bhaktikal - sant kavyadhara
Sufi kavyadhara
Krishna bhaktidhara and ram bhaktidhara
Prominent poets - kabir, jayasi, sur and tulsi
Ritikal - ritikavya
Ritibaddhkavya and riti mukta kavya
Prominent poets - keshav
Padmakar and ghananand
Adhunik kal
Renaissance, the development of prose, bharatendu mandal
Prominent writers - bharatendu
Bal krishna bhatt and pratap narain mishra
Prominent trends of modern hindi poetry
Nai kavita
Navgeet and contemporary poetry and janvadi kavita
Prominent poets
Maithili sharan gupta
Katha sahitya Upanyas and realism
The origin and development of hindi novels
Prominent novelists - premchand
Renu and bhism sahani
The origin and development of hindi short story
Prominent short story writers - premchand
Mohan rakesh and krishna sobti
Drama and theatre The origin and development of hindi drama
Jagdish chandra mathur
Ram kumar verma
Mohan rakesh
The development of hindi theatre
Criticism The origin and development of hindi criticism
Manovishleshanvadi and nai alochana
Prominent critics - ramchandra shukla
Hajari prasad dwivedi
Ram vilas sharma and nagendra
The other form of hindi prose
Lalit nibandh
History of Kannada language What is language
General characteristics of language
Dravidian family of languages and its specific features
Antiquity of kannada language
Different phases of its development
Dialects of kannada language
Regional and social
Various aspects of developments of kannada language
Phonological and semantic changes
Language borrowing
History of Kannada literature Ancient kannada literature
Influence and trends
Poets for study
Specified poets from pampa to ratnakara varni are to be studied in the light of contents, form and expression
Pampa, janna and nagachandra
Medieval kannada literature
Vachana literature
Basavanna and akka mahadevi
Medieval poets
Harihara, raghavanka and kumara-vyasa
Dasa literature
Purandara and kanaka
Modern kannada literature
Trends and ideologies
Dalita and bandaya
Poetics and literary criticism Definition and concepts of poetry
Interpretations of rasa sutra
Modern trends of literary criticism
Postcolonial criticism
Cultural history of Karnataka Contribution of dynasties to the culture of karnataka
Chalukyas of badami and kalyani, rashtrakutas, hoysalas, vijayanagara rulers, in literary context
Major religions of karnataka and their cultural contribution
Arts of karnataka
Dance in the literary context
Unification of karnataka and its impact of kannada literature
Old Kannada literature Vikramaarjuna vijaya of pampa
Medieval Kannada literature Vachana, kammata, ed. k. marulasiddappa k.r. nagaraj
Janapriya kanakasamputa, ed. d. javare gowda
Nambiyannana ragale, ed., t.n. sreekantaiah
Kumaravyasa bharata
Bharatesha vaibhava sangraha ed ta. su. shama rao
Modern Kannada literature Poetry
Hosagannada kavite
Ed. g.h. nayak
Bettada jeeva
Shivarama karanta madhavi
Anupama niranjana
Odalaala-deva-nuru mahadeva
Short story
Kannada sanna kathegalu
Shudra tapaswi
Girish karnad
A.n. moorty rao
Folk literature Janapada swaroopa
Janpada geetaanjali
Kannada janapada kathegalu
Beedi makkalu beledo
Savirada ogatugalu
Section A Genealogical relationship of the kashmiri language
Areas of occurence and dialects
Phonology and grammar
Vowel and consonant system
Nouns and pronouns with various case inflections
Verbs and various types and tenses
Syntactic structure
Simple, active and declarative statements
Intensive study of kashmiri poetry up to the nineteenth centur
Lal dyad
Sheikhul aalam
Habba khatoon
Kashmiri poetry of 19th century
Mahmood gami
Maqbool shah
Rasool mir
Abdul ahad nadim
Krishanjoo razdan
Sufi poets
Twentieth century kashmiri poetry
Literary criticism and research work
Development and various trends
Section B Kashmiri literature in the 14th century
Nineteenth century kashmiri literature
Kashmiri literature in the first half of the twentieth century
Modern kashmiri literature
An analytical study of the short story in kashmiri
Afsana majmu’a, published by the deptt. of kashmiri, university of kashmir
Kashur afsana az, published by the sahitya akademi
Hamasar kashur afsana, published by the sahitya akademi
Novel in kashmiri
Drama in kashmiri
Kashmiri folk literature
History of the Konkani language Origin and development of the language and influences on it
Major variants of konkani and their linguistic features
Grammatical and lexicographic work in konkani, including a study of cases, adverbs, indeclinables and voices
Old standard konkani, new standard and standardisation problems
History of Konkani literature History of konkani literature from its probable source to the present times, with emphasis on its major works, writers and movements
Social and cultural background of the making of konkani literature from time to time
Indian and western influences on konkani literature, from the earliest to modern times
Modern literary trends in the various genres and regions including a study of konkani folklore
Prose Konkani mansagangotri
Old konkani language and literature
Otmo denvcharak
Vadoll ani varem
Devache kurpen
Konkani lalit niband
Teen dasakam
Ratha tujeo ghudieo
Poetry Ev ani mori
Abravanchem yadnyadan
Godde ramayan
Ratnahar i and ii
Zayo zuyo
Kanadi mati konkani kavi
Adrushatache kalle
History of Maithili language Place of maithili in indo-european language family
Origin and development of maithili language
Periodic division of maithili language
Maithili and its different dialects
Relationship between maithili and other eastern languages
Origin and development of tirhuta script
Pronouns and verbs in maithili language
History of Maithili literature Background of maithili literature
Periodic division of maithili literature
Pre-vidyapati literature
Vidyapati and his tradition
Medieval maithili drama
Maithili folk literature
Development of different literary forms in modern era
Short story
Development of maithili magazines and journals
Poetry Vidyapati geet-shati
Govind das bhajanavali
Mithilabhasha ramayana
Rameshwar charit mithila ramayan
Samakaleen maithili kavita
Varna ratnakar
Khattar kakak tarang
Prithvi putra
Bhaphait chahak jinagi
Kriti rajkamlak
Early phase of Malayalam language Various theories
Origin from proto dravidian
Relation between tamil and malayalam
Six nayas of a. r. rajarajavarma
Pattu school
Later pattu works
Niranam works and krishnagatha
Linguistic features of Definitions of manipravalam
Language of early manipravala works
Minor works
Later manipravala works
Medieval champu and attakkatha
Southern and northern ballads
Mappila songs
Early malayalam prose
Kramadipika and nambiantamil
Standardisation of Malayalam Peculiarities of the language of pana, kilippattu and tullal
Contributions of indigenous and european missionaries to malayalam
Characteristics of contemporary malayalam
Malayalam as administrative language
Language of scientific and technical literature
Media language
Ancient and medieval literature Pattu - ramacharitam, niranam works and krishnagatha
Manipravalam - early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu
Folk literature
Kilippattu, tullal and mahakavya
Modern literature - poetry Venmani poets and contemporaries
The advent of romanticism
Poetry after kavitraya
Modernism in malayalam poetry
Modern literature - prose Drama
Short story
Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism
Unit 1 Ramacharitam
Mahabharatham kilippattu
Unit 2 Kumaran asan
G. sankara kurup
N. v. krishna variar
Unit 3 O. n. v
Ayyappa panicker
Attur ravivarma
Unit 4 O. chanthu menon
O. v. vijayan
Unit 5 M. t. vasudevan nair
N. s. madhavan
C. j. thomas
Unit 6 Kuttikrishna marar
M. k. sanu
V. t. bhatttathirippad
Language General characteristics of manipuri language and history of its development
Its importance and status among the tibeto-burman languages of north-east india
Recent development in the study of manipuri language
Evolution and study of old manipuri script
Significant features of manipuri language
Vowels, consonants juncture, tone, consonant cluster and its occurrence
Syllableits structure
Pattern and types
Word-class, root and its types
Affix and its types
Grammatical categories-gender
Number, person, case, tense and aspects
Process of compounding
Word order
Types of sentences
Phrase and clause structures
Literary history of manipuri
Early period
Social and cultural background
Themes, diction and style of the works
Medieval period
Social, religious and political background
Diction and style of the works
Modern period
Growth of major literary forms
Change of themes
Diction and style
Manipuri folk literature
Proverb and riddle
Aspects of manipuri culture
Pre-hindu manipuri faith
Advent of hinduism and the process of syncreticism
Performing arts-lai haraoba
Maha ras
Indegenous games
Sagol kangjei
Khong kangjei
Old Manipuri literature Numit kappa
Thawanthaba hiran
Naothingkhong phambal kaba
Panthoibi khonggul
Medieval Manipuri literature Samsok ngamba
Ramayana adi kanda
Dhananjoy laibu ningba
Chandrakirti jila changba
Modern Manipuri literature - poetry Manipuri sheireng (pub) manipuri sahitya parishad, 1998
Pi thadoi
Lamgi chekla
Nirab rajani
Ingagi nong
Mamang leikai thambal satle
Tangkhul hui
Anouba thunglaba jiba
Kanchi sheireng manipur university 1998
Chaphadraba laigi yen
Norok patal prithivi
Epic Kansa bodha
Khamba-thoibi sheireng
Drama Areppa marup
Matric pass
Judge saheb ki imung
Novel Madhabi
Imphal amasung
Magi ishing
Nungsitki phibam
Short-story Kanchi warimacha (pub) manipur university 1997
Kamala kamala
Eigi thahoudraba heitup lalu
Wanom shareng
Parishadki khangatlaba warimacha manipuri sahitya parishad 1994
Anouba manipuri warimacha the cultural forum manipur 1992
Ijat tanba
Nongthak khongnang
Prose Warenggi saklon, the cultural forum manipur 1992
Khamba-thoibigi wari amasung mahakavya
Kanchi wareng manipur university, 1998
Apunba wareng manipur university, 1986
Samaj amasung sanskriti
Thoibidu warouhouida
Kalagi mahousa
Manipuri wareng, the cultural forum manipur 1999
Language and folk-lore Nature and functions of language
Language as a signifying system
Langue and parole
Basic functions
Poetic language
Standard language and dialect
Language variations according to social parameters
Linguistic features of marathi in thirteenth century and seventeenth century
Dialects of marathi
Marathi grammar
Parts of speech
Nature and kinds of folk-lore
Lok katha
Lok natya
History of literature and literary criticism From beginning to 1818 ad, with special reference to the following
The mahanubhava writers
The varkari poets
The pandit poets
The shahirs
Bakhar literature
From 1850 to 1990 with special reference to developments in the following major forms
Drama and major literary currents and movements
Literary criticism
Nature and function of literature
Evaluation of literature
Nature, objectives and methods of criticism
Literature, culture and society
Prose Smritisthala
Mahatma jotiba phule
Shetkaryacha asud
Sarvajanik satyadharma
S.v. ketkar
P.k. atre
Sashtang namaskar
Sharchchandra muktibodh
Jana hey volatu jethe
Uddhav shelke
Baburao bagul
Jevha mi jaat chorli hoti
Gouri deshpande
Ekek paan galavaya
P.i. sonkamble
Athavaninche pakshi
Poetry Namadevanchi abhangawani
Balakvinchi kavita
Sandhyakalchya kavita
Ya sattet jeev ramat nahi
Section A History of the origin and development of nepali as one of the new indo aryan languages
Fundamentals of nepali grammar and phonology
Nominal forms and categories
Verbal forms and categories
Roots and fixes
Nepali swara and vyanjana
Major dialects of nepali
Standardisation and modernisation of nepali with special reference to language movements
Teaching of nepali language in india and its history and development with special reference to its socio-cultural aspects
Udaya lahari
Tarun tapasi
Jaleko pratibimba royeko pratidhwani
Yo zinadagi khai ke zindagi
Andhyaroma banchneharu
Section B History of nepali literature with special reference to its development in india
Fundamental concepts and theories of literature
Kavya prayojan
Literary genres
Shabda shakti
Major literary trends and movements
Ayamik movement contemporary nepali writings
Nepali folklores
Brahmaputra ko chheuchhau
Katha navaratna
Vipana katipaya
Katha sampaad
Laxmi nibandha sangraha
Das gorkha
History of Odia language Origin and development of odia language
Influence of austric
Arabic and english on odia language
Phonetics and phonemics
Consonants principles of changes in odia sounds
Derivational and inflectional affixes
Case inflection
Conjugation of verb
Syntax and kinds of sentences and their transformation
Structure of sentences
Different types of change in meaning
Common errors in spellings
Grammatical uses and construction of sentences
Regional variations in odia language and dialects
History Of Odia literature Historical backgrounds of odia literature of different periods
Ancient epics, ornate kavyas and padavalis
Typical structural forms of odia literature
Modern trends in poetry, drama short story, novel essay and literary criticism
Poetry Shanti parva from mahabharata
Bhagabata, xi skadha - jadu avadhuta sambada
Medieval Raskallola
Modern Chandrabhaga
Jeevan - chita
Kabita - 1962
Saptama ritu
Drama Katha-ghoda
Tata niranjana
Chhamana athaguntha
Short story Maralara mrityu
Laxmira abhisara
Essay Tranga o tadit
Mun satyadharma kahuchhi
Origin of Punjabi language Different stages of development and recent development in punjabi language
Characteristics of punjabi phonology and the study of its tones+e4299
Classification of vowels and consonants
Punjabi morphology The number-gender system
Affixes and different categories of post positions
Punjabi word formation
Tad bhav
Sentence structure
Language and dialect The notion of subject and object in punjabi
Noun and verb phrases
The notions of dialect and idiolect
Major dialects of punjabi
The validity of speech variation on the basis of social stratification
The distinctive features of various dialects with special reference to tones language and script
Origin and development of gurumukhi
Suitability of gurumukhi for punjabi
Classical background Nath jogi sahit
Medieval literature
Kissa and var
Modern trends Mystic, romantic, progressive and neomystic
Folk literature Folk songs
Folk tales
Epic Vir singh
Avtar singh azad
Mohan singh
Lyric Gurus
Sufis and modern lyricists-mohan singh
Amrita pritam
Shiv kumar
Harbhajan singh
Drama I.c. nanda
Harcharan singh
Balwant gargi
S.s. sekhon
Charan das sidhu
Novel Vir singh
Nanak singh
Jaswant singh kanwal
K.s. duggal
Gurdial singh
Dalip kaur tiwana
Swaran chandan
Short story Sujan singh
K. s. virk
Prem parkash
Waryam sandhu
Socio-cultural Sanskrit, persian and western
Literary influences
Essay Puran singh
Teja singh
Gurbaksh singh
Literary criticism S.s. sekhon
Attar singh
Kishan singh
Harbhajan singh
Najam hussain sayyad
Section A The complete bani as included in the adi granth
Japu ji. baramah. asa di var
Section B Jangnama
Chandan vari
Sufi khana
Nawan jahan
Chitta lahu
Pavittar papi
Ek mian do talwaran
Nawan shivala
Merian abhul yadaan
Mera roosi safarnama
Mera pakistani safarnama
Loha kutt
Sultan razia
Parsidh punjabi kavi
Punjabi kav shiromani
Section A Significant features of the grammar, with particular stress on sanjna, sandhi, karaka, samasa, kartari and karmani vacyas
Main characteristics of vedic sanskrit language
Prominent feature of classical sanskrit language
Contribution of sanskrit to linguistic studies
General knowledge of
Literary history of sanskrit
Principal trends of literary criticism
The origin and development of literary geners of
Muktaka kavya
General study of the following groups
Sundarakanda of valmiki’s ramayana
Arthasastra of kautilya
Short notes in sanskrit on the following
Section B Essential of indian culture with stress on
Arts and fine arts
Technical sciences
Trends of indian philosophy
Short essay in sanskrit
Bhagavatgita ii
Sundarakandam of valmiki canto 15
Svapnavasavadattam act vi
Abhijnansakuntalam act iv
Uttararamacaritam act i
History of Santhali language Main austric language family
Population and distribution
Grammatical structure of santhali language
Important character of santhali language
Impact of other languages of santhali
Standardization of santhali language
History of Santhali literature Literary trend of the following four periods of history of santhali literature
Ancient literature before 1854
Missionary period literature between 1855 to 1889 ad
Medieval period: literature between 1890 to 1946 ad
Modern period
Literature from 1947 ad to till date
Writing tradition in history of santhali literature
Festival and rituals
Literary forms Main characteristics
History and development of following literary forms
Folk literature in Santhali Folk song
Folk tale
Idioms puzzles and kudum
Modern literature in Santhali Development of poetry and prominent poets
Development of prose and prominent writers
Novels and prominent novelists
Stories and prominent story writers
Drama and prominent dramatist
Criticism and prominent critics
Essay, sketches, memoirs, travelogues and prominent writers
Santhali writers Shyam sundar hembram
Pandit raghunath murmu
Barha beshra
Sadhu ramchand murmu
Narayan soren toresutam
Sarda prasad kisku
Raghunath tudu
Kalipada soren
Sakla soren
Digamber hansda
Aditya mitra santhali
Babulal murmu adivasi
Jadumani beshra
Arjun hembram
Krishna chandra tudu
Rupchand hansda
Kalendra nath mandi
Gour chandra murmu
Thakur prasad murmu
Hara prasad murmu
Uday nath majhi
Parimal hembram
Dhirendra nath baske
Shyam charan hembram
Damayanti beshra
T.k. rapaj
Boyha biswanath tudu
Cultural heritage of Santhali tradition Customs
Ancient literature Prose
Kherwal bonso dhorom puthi by majhi ramdas tudu
Mare hapramko reyak katha by l.o. scrafsrud
Jomsim binti lita by mangal chandra turkulumang soren
Marang buru binti by kanailal tudu
Karam sereng by nunku soren
Devi dasain sereng by manindra hansda
Horh sereng by w.g. archer
Baha sereng by balaram tudu
Dong sereng by padmashri bhagwat murmu thakur
Hor sereng by raghunath murmu
Soros sereng by babulal murmu adivasi
More sin more ndia by rup chand hansda
Judasi madwa latar by tez narayan murmu
Modern literature Poetry
Onorhen baha dhalwak by paul jujhar soren
Asar binti by narayan soren
Chand mala by gora chand tudu
Onto baha mala by aditya mitra
Tiryo tetang by hari har hansda
Sisirjon rar by thakur prasad murmu
Harmawak ato by r.karstiars
Manu mati by chandra mohan hansda
Ato orak by doman hansdak
Ojoy gada dhiph re by nathenial murmu
Jiyon gada by rup chand hansda and jadumani beshra
Mayajaal by doman sahu samir and padmashri bhagwat murmu thakur
Kherwar bir by pandit raghunath murmu
Juri khatir by dr. k.c. tudu.
Birsa bir by ravi lal tudu
Santal ko ren mayam gohako by dr. biswanath hansda
Origin and evolution of Sindhi language Views of different scholars
Significant linguistic features of Sindhi language Including those pertaining to its phonology
Morphology and syntax
Major dialects of the Sindhi language
Sindhi vocabulary Stages of its growth
Including those in the pre-partition and post-partition periods
Historical study of various writing systems of Sindhi
Changes in the structure of Sindhi language in India After partition
Due to influence of other languages and social conditions
Sindhi literature through the ages in context of socio-cultural conditions in the respective periods Early medieval literature upto 1350 a.d. including folk literature
Late medieval period from 1350 a.d. to 1850 a.d.
Renaissance period from 1850 a.d. to 1947 a.d
Modern period from 1947 and onwards
Poetry Shah jo choond shair by ed. h.i. sadarangani
Sachal jo choond kalam by ed. kalyan b. advani
Sami-a-ja choond sloka by ed. b.h. nagrani
Shair-e-bewas by kishinchand bewas
Roshan chhanvro by narayan shyam
Virhange khapoi je sindhi shair jee choond by h.i. sadarangani
Drama Behtareen sindhi natak by edited by m. kamal
Kako kaloomal by madan jumani
Pakheeara valar khan vichhrya by gobind malhi
Sat deenhan by krishin khatwani
Choond sindhi kahanyoon edited by prem prakash
Bandhan by sundari uttamchandani
Behtareen sindhi mazmoon edited by hiro thakur
Sindhi tanqeed criticism edited by harish vaswani
Mumhinjee hayati-a-ja sona ropa varqa by popati hiranandani
Dr. choithram gidwani by vishnu sharma
History of Tamil language Major indian language families
The place of tamil among indian languages in general and dravidian in particular
Enumeration and distribution of dravidian languages
The language of sangam literature
The language of medieval tamil
Pallava period
Historical study of
Tense markers and case markers in tamil
Borrowing of words from other languages into tamil
Regional and social dialects
Difference between literary and spoken tamil
History of Tamil literature Tolkappiyam-sangam literature
The division of akam and puram
The secular characteristics of sangam literature
The development of ethical literature
Silappadikaram and manimekalai
Devotional literature The bridal mysticism in alwar hymns
Minor literary forms
Social factors for the development of modern tamil literature
Short story
New poetry
The impact of various political ideologies on modern writings
Neetthal vinnappam
Recent trends in Tamil studies Approaches to criticism
Historical and moralistic
The use of criticism
The various techniques in literature
The concept of comparative literature
Principle of comparative literature
Folk literature in Tamil Ballads
Sociological study of tamil folklore
Uses of translation
Translation of tamil works into other languages
Development of journalism in tamil
Cultural heritage of the Tamils Concept of love and war
Concept of aram
The ethical
Codes adopted by the ancient tamils in their warfare
Customs beliefs
Modes of worship in the five thinais
The cultural changes as revealed in post sangam literature
Cultural fusion in the medieval period
The development of arts and architecture through the ages
The impact of various political, social, religious and cultural movements on tamil society
The role of mass media in the cultural change of contemporary tamil society
Ancient literature Kuruntokai
Tirukkural porutpal
Arasiyalum amaichiyalum
Epic literature Silappadikaram
Madhurai kandam
Kumbakarunan vadhai padalam
Modern literature Poetry
Kannan pattu
Kudumba vilakku
Naa kamarasan
Karappu malarkal
Mu varadharajanar
Aramum arasiyalum
C. n. annadurai
Ye! thazhntha tamilagame
Novel, short story and drama
Yaurkkum vetkamillai
Folk literature
Muthuppattan kathai edited by na vanamamalai
Malaiyaruvi edited by ki. va jagannathan
Language Place of telugu among dravidian languages and its antiquity
Etymological history of telugu
Tenugu and andhra
Major linguistic changes in phonological
Grammatical and syntactical levels
From proto-dravidian to old telugu and from old telugu to modern telugu
Evolution of spoken telugu when compared to classical telugu
Formal and functional view of telugu language
Influence of other languages and its impact on telugu
Modernization of telugu language
Linguistic and literary movements and their role in modernization of telugu
Role of media in modernization of telugu
Problems of terminology and mechanisms in coining new terms in telugu in various discourses including scientific and technical
Dialects of telugu
Regional and social variations and problems of standardization
Major divisions of telugu sentences simple
Complex and compound sentences
Noun and verb predications
Processes of nominalization and relativization
Direct and indirect reporting
Conversion processes
Problems of translation
Social and idiomatic
Methods of translation
Approaches to translation
Literary and other kinds of translation
Various uses of translation
Literature Literature in pre-nannaya period
Marga and desi poetry
Nannaya period
Historical and literary background of andhra mahabharata
Saiva poets and their contribution
Tikkana and his place in telugu literature
Errana and his literary works
Nachana somana and his new approach to poetry
Srinatha and potana and their works and contribution
Bhakti poets in telugu literature
Evolution of prabandhas
Kavya and prabandha
Southern school of telugu literature
Raghunatha nayaka
Chemakura vankatakavi and women poets
Literary forms
Prose and padakavita
Modern telugu literature and literary forms
Short story
Playlet and poetic forms
Literary movements
Romanticism and progressive
Revolutionary movements
Feminist and dalit literature
Main divisions of folk literature
Performing folk arts
Aesthetic approach Rassa
Formal and structural
Imagery and symbolism
Sociological approaches
Historical approaches
Ideological approaches
Psychological approaches
Dushyanta Chritra by Nannaya
Tikkana by Sri Krishna Rayabaramu
Guna Nidhi Katha by Srinath
Pingali Surana by Sugatri Salinulakatha
Molla by Ramayanamu
Andhra Nayaka Satakamu by Kasula Purushothama Kavi
Animutyalu by Gurajada Appa Rao
Andhra Prasasti by Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Krishnapaksham by Devulapalli Krishna Sastry
Sri Sri-Maha Prastanam
C. Narayana Reddy Karpuravasanta Rayalu
Sarada Lekhalu by Kanuparti Varalakshmamma
Atreya N.G.O.
Racha Konda Viswanatha Sastry by Alpajaeevi
Development of Urdu language Development of indo-aryan
Old indo-aryan
Middle indo-aryan
New indo-aryan
Western hindi and its dialects brij bhasha khadi boli
Theories about the origin of urdu language
Dakhani urdu
Origin and Development
Its significant linguistic features
Social and cultural roots of urdu language
And its distinctive features
Genres and their development Poetry
Rubai jadid nazm
Short story
Significant features of Deccani, delhi and lucknow schools
Sir syed movement
Romantic movement
Progressive movement
Literary criticism and its development
Essay writing
Intikhab-E-Khutoot-E Ghalib
Apne dukh mujhe dedo
Sahrul Bayan
Managerial function and process Concept and foundations of management
Evolution of management thoughts
Managerial functions
Role of manager
Managerial skills
Management of innovation
Managing in a global environment
Flexible systems management
Social responsibility and managerial ethics
Process and customer orientation
Managerial processes on direct and indirect value chain
Organisational behaviour and design Conceptual model of organization behaviour
The individual processes
Values and attitude
Perception: understanding and appreciation of scale and proportion of objects,building forms and elements,colour texture,harmony and contrast
Learning and reinforcement
Work stress and stress management
The dynamics of organization behaviour
Power and politics
Conflict and negotiation
Leadership process and styles
The organizational processes
Job design
Neoclassical and contingency approaches to organizational design
Organizational theory and design
Organizational culture
Managing cultural diversity
Learning organization
Organizational change and development
Knowledge based enterprise
Systems and processes
Networked and virtual organizations
Human resource management Hr challenges
Hrm functions
The future challenges of hrm
Strategic management of human resources
Human Resource Planning
Job analysis
Job evaluation
Recruitment and selection
Training and Development
Promotion and transfer
Performance management
Compensation management and bnenefits
Employee morale and productivity
Management of organizational climate and industrial relations
Human resources accounting and audit
Human resource information system
International human resource management
Accounting for managers Financial accounting
Importance and scope
Generally accepted accounting principles
Preparation of financial statements with special reference to analysis of a balance sheet and measurment of business income
Inventory valuation and depreciation
Financial statement analysis
Fund flow analysis
The statement of cash flows
Management accounting concept
Imporance and scope
Cost accounting
Records and processes
Cost ledger and control accounts
Reconciliation and integration bwtween financial and cost accounts
Overhead cost and control
Job and process costing
Budget and budgetary control
Performance budgeting
Zero-base budgeting
Relevant costing and costing for decision-making
Standard costing and variance analysis
Marginal costing and absorption costing
Financial management Goal of finance function
Concepts of value and return
Valuation of bonds and shares
Management of working capital
Estimation and financing
Management of cash
Inventory and current liabilities
Cost of capital
Capital budgeting
Financial and operating leverage
Design of capital structure
Theories and practices
Shareholder value creation
Dividend policy
Corporate financial policy and strategy
Management of corporate distress and restructuring strategy
Capital and money markets
Institutions and instruments
Leasing hire purchase and venture capital
Regulation of capital market
Risk and return
Portfolio theory
Financial derivatives
Recent reforms in financial sector
Marketing management Concept
Evolution and scope
Marketing strategy formulation and components of marketing plan
Segmenting and targeting the market
Positioning and differentiating the market offering
Analyzing competition
Analyzing consumer markets
Industrial buyer behaviour
Market research
Product strategy
Pricing strategies
Designing and managing marketing channels
Integrated marketing communications
Building customer staisfaction
Value and retention
Services and non-profit marketing
Ethics in marketing
Consumer protection
Internet marketing
Retail management
Customer relationship management
Concept of holistic marketing
Quantitative techniques in decision-making Descriptive statistics
Graphical and numerical methods
Introduction to probability
Discrete and continuous probability distributions
Inferential statistics
Sampling distributions
Central limit theorem
Hypothesis testing for differences between means and proportions
Inference about population variances
Chisquare and anova
Simple correlation and regression
Time series and forecasting
Decision theory
Index numbers
Linear Programming
Problem formulation
Simplex method and graphical solution
Sensitivity analysis
Production and operations management Fundamentals of operations management
Organizing for production
Aggregate production planning
Capacity planning
Plant design
Process planning
Plant size and scale of operations
Management of facilities
Line balancing
Equipment replacement and maintenance
Production control
Chain management
Vendor evaluation and audit
Quality management
Statistical process control
Six sigma
Flexibility and agility in manufacturing systems
World class manufaturing
Project management concepts
R and d management
Management of service operations
Role and importance of materials management
Value analysis
Make or buy decision
Inventory control
Waste management
Management information system Conceptual foundations of information systems
Information theory
Information resource management
Types of information systems
Systems development
Overview of systems and design
System development management life
Designing online and distributed environments
Implementation and control of project
Trends in information technology
Managing data resources
Organising data
Dss and rdbms
Enterprise resource planning
Expert systems
E-business architecture
Information systems planning
Flexibility in information systems
User involvement
Evaluation of information systems
Government business interface State participation in business
Interaction between government
Business and different chambers of commerce and industry in india
Government’s ploicy with regard to small scale industries
Government clearances for establishing a new enterprise
Public distribution system
Government control over price and distribution
Consumer protection act and the role of voluntary organizations in protecting consumers’ rights
New industrial policy of the government
Deregulation and privatisation
Indian planning system
Government policy concerning
Development of backward areas regions
The responsibilities of the business as well as the government to protect the environment
Corporate governance
Cyber laws
Strategic cost management Business policy as a field of study
Nature and scope of strategic management
Strategic intent
Objectives and policies
Process of strategic planning and implementation
Environmental analysis and internal analysis
Swot analysis
Tools and techniques for strategic analysis
Impact matrix
The experience curve
Bcg matrix
Gec mode
Industry analysis
Concept of value chain
Strategic profile of a firm
Framework for analysing competition
Competitive advantage of a firm
Generic competitive strategies
Growth strategies
Integration and diversification
Concept of core competence
Strategic flexibility
Reinventing strategy
Strategy and structure
Chief executive and board
Turnaround management
Management of strategic change
Strategic alliances
Mergers and acquisitions
Strategy and corporate evolution in the indian context
International business International business environment
Changing composition of trade in goods and services
India’s foreign trade
Policy and trends
Financing of international trade
Regional economic cooperation
Internationalisation of service firms
International production
Operation management in international companies
International taxation
Global competitiveness and technological developments
Global e-business
Designing global organisational structure and control
Multicultural management
Global business strategy
Global marketing strategies
Export management
Export-import procedures
Joint ventures
Foreign investment
Foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment
Cross-border mergers and acquisitions
Foreign exchange risk exposure management
World financial markets and international banking
External debt management
Country risk analysis
Linear algebra Vector spaces over r and c
Linear dependence and independence
Linear transformations
Rank and nullity
Matrix of a linear transformation
Algebra of matrices
Row and column reduction
Echelon form
Congruence’s and similarity
Rank of a matrix
Inverse of a matrix
Solution of system of linear equations
Eigen values and Eigen vectors
Characteristic polynomial
Cayley-Hamilton theorem
Hermitian, skew- Hermitian
Orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues
Calculus Real numbers
Functions of a real variable
Mean-value theorem
Taylor’s theorem with remainders
Indeterminate forms
Maxima and minima
Curve tracing
Functions of two or three variables
Partial derivatives
Lagrange’s method of multipliers
Riemann’s definition of definite integrals
Indefinite integrals
Infinite and improper integral
Double and triple integrals evaluation techniques
Surface and volumes
Analytic geometry Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions
Second degree equations in three variables
Reduction to canonical forms
Straight lines
Shortest distance between two skew lines
Hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties
Ordinary differential equations Formulation of differential equations
Equations of first order and first degree
Integrating factor
Orthogonal trajectory
Equations of first order but not of first degree
Clairaut’s equation
Singular solution
Second and higher order liner equations with constant coefficients
Complementary function
Particular integral and general solution
Section order linear equations with variable coefficients
Euler-Cauchy equation
Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters
Laplace and inverse laplace transforms and their properties
Laplace transforms of elementary functions
Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients
Dynamics and statics Rectilinear motion
Simple Harmonic Motion
Motion in a plane
Constrained motion
Work and energy
Conservation of energy
Kepler’s laws
Orbits under central forces
Equilibrium of a system of particles
Work and potential energy
Common catenary
Principle of virtual work
Stability of equilibrium
Equilibrium of forces in three dimensions
Vector analysis Scalar and vector fields
Differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable
Divergence and curl in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates
Higher order derivatives
Vector identities and vector equation
Application to geometry
Curves in space
Curvature and torsion
Serret-furenet's formulae
Gauss and stokes theorems
Green's indentities
Algebra Groups
Cyclic groups
Lagrange’s theorem
Normal subgroups
Quotient groups
Homomorphism of groups
Basic isomorphism theorems
Permutation groups
Cayley’s theorem
Subrings and ideals
Homomorphisms of rings
Integral domains
Principal ideal domains
Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains
Quotient fields
Real analysis Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property
Limit of a sequence
Cauchy sequence
Completeness of real line
Series and its convergence
Absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms
Rearrangement of series
Continuity and uniform continuity of functions
Properties of continuous functions on compact sets
Riemann integral
Improper integrals
Fundamental theorems of integral calculus
Uniform convergence
Differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions
Partial derivatives of functions of several two or three variables
Maxima and minima
Complex analysis Analytic function
Cauchy-Riemann equations
Cauchy's theorem
Cauchy's integral formula
Power series
Representation of an analytic function
Taylor’s series
Laurent’s series
Cauchy’s residue theorem
Contour integration
Linear programming Linear programming problems
Basic solution
Basic feasible solution and optimal solution
Graphical method and simplex method of solutions
Transportation and assignment problems
Partial differential equations Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations
Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order
Cauchy’s method of characteristics
Linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients
Canonical form
Equation of a vibrating string
Heat equation
Laplace equation and their solutions
Numerical analysis and computer programming Numerical methods
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection
Regula-falsi and newton-raphson methods
Solution of system of linear equations by gaussian elimination and gauss-jorden
Gauss-seidel methods
Newton’s and interpolation
Lagrange’s interpolation
Numerical integration
Trapezoidal rule
Simpson’s rule
Gaussian quadrature formula
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations
Eular and runga kutta methods
Computer programming
Binary system
Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers
Octal and hexadecimal systems
Conversion to and from decimal systems
Algebra of binary numbers
Elements of computer systems and concept of memory
Basic logic gates and truth tables
Boolean algebra
Normal forms
Representation of unsigned integers
Signed integers and reals
Double precision reals and long integers
Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems
Mechanics and fluid dynamics Generalised coordinates
D'alembert’s principle and lagrange’s equations
Hamilton equations
Moment of inertia
Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions
Equation of continuity
Euler’s equation of motion for inviscid flow
Path of a particle
Potential flow
Two-dimensional and axisymmetric motion
Sources and sinks
Vortex motion
Navier-stokes equation for a viscous fluid
Mechanical engineering
Mechanics of rigid bodies Equations of equilibrium in space and its application
First and second moments of area
Simple problems on friction
Kinematics of particles for plane motion
Elementary particle dynamics
Mechanics of deformable bodies Generalized hooke’s law and its application
Design problems on axial stress
Shear stress and bearing stress
Material properties for dynamic loading
Bending shear and stresses in beams
Determination of principle stresses and strains-analytical and graphical
Compound and combined stresses
Bi-axial stresses-thin walled pressure vessel
Material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load
Design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only
Deflection of beam for statically determinate problems
Theories of failure
Engineering materials Basic concepts on structure of solids
Common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications
Heat treatment of steels
Composite materials and nano-materials
Theory of machines Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms
Gears and empicyclie gear trains
Balancing of rigid rotors
Balancing of single and multicy linder engines
Linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems
Critical speeds and whirling of shafts
Manufacturing process Machine tool engineering
Merhant’s force analysis
Taylor’s tool life equation
Conventional machining
Nc and cnc machining process
Jigs and fixtures
Non-conventional machining
Water jet machining
Application of lasers and plasmas
Energy rate calculations
Forming and welding processes
Standard processes
Concept of fits and tolerances
Tools and guages
Inspection of length
Profile and surface finish
Manufacturing management System design
Factory location
Simple or models
Plant layout-methods based
Applications of engineering economic analysis and break-even analysis for product selection
Process selection and capacity planning
Predetermined time standards
System planning
Forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition
Design and blancing of multi model and stochastic assembly lines
Inventory management
Probablistic inventory models for order time and order quanitity determination
Jit systems
Strategic sourcing
Managing inter plant logistics
System operations and control
Scheduling algorithms for job shops
Applications of statistical methods for product and process quality control applications of control charts for
Percent defective
Number of defectives and defects per unit
Quality cost systems
Management of resources
Organizations and risks in projects
System improvement
Implementation of systems
Total quality management
Developing and managing flexible
Lean and agile organizations
Thermodynamics and gas dynamics turbine Basic concept of first-law and second law of thermodynamics
Concept of entropy and reversibility
Availability and unavailability and irreversibility
Classification and properties of fluids
Incompressible and compressible fluids flows
Effect of mach number and compressibility
Continuity momentum and energy equations
Normal and oblique shocks
One dimensional isentropic flow
Flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer
Flow through fans
Blowers and compressors
Axial and centrifugal flow configuration
Design of fans and compressors
Single problems compresses and turbine cascade
Open and closed cycle gas turbines
Work done in the gas turbine
Reheat and regenerators
Heat transfer Conduction heat transfer
General conduction equation
Poisson and fourier equations
Fourier law of conduction
One dimensional steady state heat conduction applied to simple wall
Solid and hollow cylinder and spheres
Convection heat transfer
Newton’s law of convection
Free and forces convection
Heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a flate plate
Concepts of nusselt number
Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer their thickness
Prandtl number
Analogy between heat and momentum transfer
Prandtl analogies
Heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow through horizontal tubes
Free convection from horizontal and vertical plates
Black body radiation
Basic radiation laws such as stefan-boltzman
Planck distribution
Wein’s displacement
Basic heat exchanger analysis
Classification of heat exchangers
Engines Classification
Themodynamic cycles of operation
Determination of break power
Indicated power
Mechanical efficiency
Heat balance sheet
Interpretation of performance characteristics
Petrol engines
Gas and diesel engines
Combustion in si and ci engines
Normal and abnormal combustion
Effect of working parameters on knocking
Reduction of knocking
Forms of combustion chamber for si and ci engines
Rating of fuels
Different systems of ic engines
Cooling and transmission systems
Alternate fuels in ic engines
Steam engineering Steam generation
Modified ranking cycle analysis
Modern steam boilers
Steam at critical and supercritical pressures
Draught equipment
Natural and artificial draught
Boiler fuels solid
Liquid and gaseous fuels
Steam turbines
Principle and types
Impulse and reaction turbines
Axial thrust
Steam nozzles
Flow of steam in convergent and divergent nozzle pressure at throat for maximum discharge with different initial steam conditions such as wet
Saturated and superheated
Effect of variation of back pressure
Supersaturated flow of steam in nozzles
Wilson line
Rankine cycle with internal and external irreversibility
Reheat factor
Reheating and regeneration
Methods of governing
Back pressure and pass out turbines
Steam power plants
Combined cycle power generation
Heat recovery steam generators fired and unfired
Co-generation plants
Refrigeration and air-conditioning Vapour compression refrigeration cycle
Cycle on p-h and t-s diagrams
Ecofriendly refrigerants
R 134a. 123
Systems like evaporators
Expansion devices
Simple vapour absorption systems
Psychrometry properties
Sensible heating and cooling
Humidification and dehumidification effective temperature
Air-conditioning load calculation
Simple duct design
Medical science
Human anatomy Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee
Gross anatomy
Blood supply and lymphatic drainage of
Mammary gland
Gonads and uterus
Applied anatomy of diaphragm
Perineum and inguinal region
Clinical anatomy of
Urinary bladder
Uterine tubes
Vas deferens
Placenta and placental barrier
Development of
Testis and their common congenital abnormalities
Central and peripheral autonomic nervous system
Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of brain
Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations
Hearing and vision
Cranial nerves distribution and clinical significance
Components of autonomic nervous system
Human physiology Conduction and transmission of impulse
Mechanism of contraction
Neuromuscular transmission
Control of equilibrium
Posture and muscle tone
Descending pathways
Functions of cerebellum
Basal ganglia
Physiology of sleep and consciousness
Endocrine system
Mechanism of action of hormones
Function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland
Physiology of reproductive system
Pregnancy menstrual cycle
Regulation and fate of blood cells
Cardiac output
Blood pressure
Regulation of cardiovascular functions
Biochemistry Organ function tests
Thyroid protein synthesis
Vitamins and minerals
Restriction fragment length
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pathology Inflammation and repair
Disturbances of growth and cancer
Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus
Differentiation between
Primary and metastatic malignancies
Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma
Carcinoma breast
Oral cancer
Cancer cervix
Pathogenesis and histopathology of cirrhosis liver
Acute osteomyelitis
Microbiology Humoral and cell mediated immunity
Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of
E. histolytica
Pharmacology Mechanism of action and side effects of drugs
Antipyretics and analgesics
General and cardiac vasodilators
Forensic medicine and toxicology Forensic examination of injuries and wounds
Examination of blood and seminal stains
Examination of poisoning
Examination of sedative overdose
Examination of hanging
Examination of drowning
Examination of burns
Examination of dna and finger print study
General medicine Etiology
Clinical features
Diagnosis and principles of management of
Japanese encephalitis
Ischaemic heart disease
Pulmonary embolism
Bronchial asthma
Pleural effusion
Malabsorption syndromes
Acid peptic diseases
Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver
Glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis
Renal failure
Nephrotic syndrome
Renovascular hypertension
Complications of diabetes mellitus
Coagulation disorders
Hypo and hyper thyrodism
Meningitis and encephalitis
Imaging in medical problems
Ct scan, mri
Anxiety and depressive psychosis and schizophrenia and ect
Paediatrics Immunization
Baby friendly hospital
Congenital cyanotic heart disease
Respiratory distress syndrome
Imnci classification and management
Pem grading and management
Ari and diarrhea of under five and their management
Dermatology Psoriasis
Allergic dermatitis
Stevan johnson’s syndrome
Lichen planus
General surgery Clinical features
Diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate and harelip
Laryngeal tumour
Oral and esophageal tumours
Peripheral arterial diseases
Varicose veins
Coarctation of aorta
Tumours of thyroid
Tumours of adrenal
Tumours of glands
Abscess cancer
Fibroadenoma and adenosis of breast
Bleeding peptic ulcer
Tuberculosis of bowel
Ulcerative colitis
Cancer stomach
Renal mass
Cancer prostatie
Stones of gall bladder
Ureter ureter and urinary bladder
Management of surgical conditions of rectum
Anus and anal canal
Gall bladder and bile ducts
Portal hypertension
Liver abscess
Carcinoma head of pancreas
Fractures of spine
Colles’ fracture and bone tumors
Laprascopic surgery
Obstetrics and gynaecology including family planning Diagnosis of pregnancy
Labour management
Complications of 3rd stage
Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage
Resuscitation of the newborn
Management of abnormal life and difficult labour
Management of small for date or premature newborn
Diagnosis and management of anemia
Preeclampsia and toxaemias of pregnancy
Management of post-menopausal syndrome
Intra-uterine devices
Tubectomy and vasectomy
Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects
Cancer cervix
Pelvic pain
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Fibroid and prolapse of uterus
Community medicine Principles
Methods approach and measurements of epidemiology
Nutritional diseases/diorders and nutrition programmes
Health information collection
Analysis and presentation
Objectives of health information collection
Components and critical analysis of national programmes for control/eradication of malaria
Filaria and tuberculosis
Stds and dengue
Critical appraisal of health care delivery system
Health management and administration
Techniques of health management and administration
Tools of health management and administration
Programme implementation and evaluation
Objectives of reproductive and child health
Components of reproductive and child health
Goals and status of reproductive and child health
National rural health mission and millennium development goals
Management of hospital and industrial waste
History and problems of philosophy Plato and aristotle
Ideas of plato and aristotle
Form and matter
Actuality and potentiality
Cartesian method and certain knowledge
Mind-body dualism
Determinism and freedom
Theory of knowledge
Substance and qualities
Self and god
Possibility of synthetic a priori judgments
Space and time
Ideas of reason
Critique of proofs for the existence of god
Dialectical method
Absolute idealism
Russell and early wittgenstein
Defence of commonsense
Refutation of idealism
Logical atomism
Logical constructions
Incomplete symbols
Picture theory of meaning
Sying and showing
Logical positivism
Verification theory of meaning
Rejection of metaphysics
Linguistic theory of necessary propositions
Later wittgenstein
Meaning and use
Language games
Critique of private language
Theory of essences
Avoidance of psychologism
Existence and essence
Responsibility and authentic existence
Being-in-the-world and temporality
Quine and strawson
Critique of empiricism
Theory of basic particulars and persons
Theory of knowlegde
Rejection of transcendent entities
Theory of reality
Bondage and liberation
Schools of buddhism
Prat ityasamutpada
Theory of categories
Theory of appearance
Theory of pramana
Theory of self
Proofs for the existence of god
Theory of causation
Atomistic theory of creation
Schools of vedanta
Integral yoga
Socio-political philosophy Social and political ldeals
Individual and state
Duties and accountability
Forms of government
Theocracy and democracy
Political ideologies
Marxism and socialism
Crime and punishment
Mass violence
Capital punishment
Development and social progress
Gender discrimination
Female foeticide
Land and property rights
Caste discrimination
Gandhi and ambedkar
Philosophy of religion Notions of god
Relation to man and the world
Proofs for the existence of god and their critique
Problem of evil
Rebirth and liberation
Revelation and faith
Religious experience
Nature and object
Religion without god
Religion and morality
Religious pluralism and the problem of absolute truth
Nature of religious language
Analogical and symbolic
Cognitivist and non-cognitive
Mechanics of particles Laws of motion
Conservation of energy and momentum
Applications to rotating frames
Centripetal and coriolis accelerations
Motion under a central force
Conservation of angular momentum
Kepler’s laws
Fields and potentials
Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies
Gauss and poisson equations
Gravitational self-energy
Two-body problem
Reduced mass
Rutherford scattering
Centre of mass and laboratory reference frames
Mechanics of rigid bodies
Mechanics of rigid bodies System of particles
Centre of mass
Angular momentum
Equations of motion
Conservation theorems for energy
Momentum and angular momentum
Elastic and inelastic collisions
Rigid body
Degrees of freedom
Euler’s theorem
Angular velocity
Moments of inertia
Theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes
Equation of motion for rotation
Molecular rotations
Di and triatomic molecules
Precessional motion
Mechanics of continuous media Elasticity
Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation
Streamline flow
Poiseuille’s equation
Bernoulli's equation
Stokes’ law and applications
Special relativity Michelson, morely experiment and its implications
Lorentz transformations length contraction
Time dilation
Addition of relativistic velocities
Aberration and doppler effect
Mass and energy relation
Simple applications to a decay process
Four dimensional momentum vector
Covariance of equations of physics
Waves and optics Waves
Simple Harmonic Motion
Damped oscillation
Forced oscillation and resonance
Stationary waves in a string
Pulses and wave packets
Phase and group velocities
Reflection and refraction from huygens’ principle
Geometrial optics
Laws of reflection and refraction from fermat’s principle
Matrix method in paraxial optic-thin lens formula
Nodal planes
System of two thin lenses
Chromatic and spherical aberrations
Interference of light
Young’s experiment
Newton’s rings
Interference by thin films
Michelson interferometer
Multiple beam interference and fabry perot interferometer
Fraunhofer diffraction
Single slit
Double slit
Diffraction grating
Resolving power
Diffraction by a circular aperture and the airy pattern
Fresnel diffraction
Half-period zones and zone plates
Circular aperture
Polarisation and modern optics
Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light
Double refraction
Quarter wave plate
Optical activity
Principles of fibre optics
Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres
Material dispersion
Single mode fibers
Lasers-einstein a and b coefficients
Ruby and he-ne lasers
Characteristics of laser light
Spatial and temporal coherence
Focusing of laser beams
Three-level scheme for laser operation
Holography and simple applications
Electricity and magnetism Electrostatics and magnetostatics
Laplace and poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications
Energy of a system of charges
Multiple expansion of scalar potential
Method of images and its applications
Potential and field due to a dipole
Force and torque on a dipole in an external field
Solutions to boundary
Value problems
Conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field
Magnetic shell
Uniformly magnetised sphere
Ferromagnetic materials
Energy loss
Current electricity
Kirchhoff's laws and their applications
Biot-Savart law
Ampere's law
Faraday's law
Lenz's law
Self-and mutualinductances
Mean and rms values in ac circuits
Dc and ac circuits with r, l and c components
Series and parallel resonance
Quality factor
Principle of transformer
Electromagnetic waves and blackbody radiation Displacement current and maxwell’s equations
Wave equations in vacuum
Poynting theorem
Vector and scalar potentials
Electromagnetic field tensor
Covariance of maxwell’s equations
Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics
Reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics
Fresnel’s relations
Total internal reflection
Normal and anomalous dispersion
Rayleigh scattering
Blackbody radiation and planck ’s radiation law
Stefan-Boltzmann law
Wien’s displacement law and rayleigh-jeans law
Thermal and statistical physics Thermodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics
Reversible and irreversible processes
Processes and entropy changes
Otto and diesel engines
Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential
Van der waals equation of state of a real gas
Critical constants
Maxwell boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities
Transport phenomena
Equipartition and virial theorems
Einstein and debye’s theories of specific heat of solids
Maxwell relations and application
Clausius-Clapeyron equation
Adiabatic demagnetisation
Joule kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases
Statistical physics
Macro and micro states
Statistical distributions
Bose-einstein and fermi
Dirac distributions
Applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation
Concept of negative temperatures
Quantum mechanics Wave-particle duality
Schroedinger equation and expectation values
Uncertainty principle
Solutions of the one-dimensional schroedinger equation for free particle
Particle in a box
Particle in a finite well
Linear harmonic oscillator
Reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular barrier
Particle in a three dimensional box
Density of states
Free electron theory of metals
Angular momentum
Spin half particles
Properties of pauli spin matrices
Atomic and molecular physics Stern-gerlach experiment
Electron spin
Fine structure of hydrozen atom
L-s coupling
J-j coupling
Spectroscopic notation of atomic states
Zeeman effect
Franck-condon principle and applications
Elementary theory of rotational
Vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules
Raman effect and molecular structure
Laser raman spectroscopy
Importance of neutral hydrogen atom
Molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy
Fluorescence and phosphorescence
Elementary theory and applications of nmr and epr
Elementary ideas about lamb shift and its significance
Nuclear and particle physics Basic nuclear properties-size
Binding energy
Angular momentum
Magnetic moment
Semi-empirical mass formula and applications
Mass parabolas
Ground state of a deuteron
Magnetic moment and non-central forces
Meson theory of nuclear forces
Salient features of nuclear forces
Shell model of the nucleus
Success and limitations
Violation of parity in beta decay
Gamma decay and internal conversion
Elementary ideas about mossbauer spectroscopy
Q-value of nuclear reactions
Nuclear fission and fusion
Energy production in stars
Nuclear reactors
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions
Conservation laws: Mass, momentum (integral and differential form)
Quark structure of hadrons
Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions
Elementary ideas about unification of forces
Physics of neutrinos
Solid state physics, devices and electronics Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter
Different crystal systems
Space groups
Methods of determination of crystal structure
X-ray diffraction
Scanning and transmission electron microscopies
Band theory of solids
Conductors, insulators and semi-conductors
Thermal properties of solids
Specific heat
Debye theory
Dia, para and ferro-magnetism
Elements of super-conductivity
Meissner effect
Josephson junctions and applications
Elementary ideas about high temperature super conductivity
Intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors
P-n-p and n-p-n transistors
Amplifiers and oscillators
Fet, jfet and mosfet
Digital electronics
Boolean identities
De Morgan's laws
Logic gates and truth tables
Simple logic circuits
Solar cells
Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers
Political science and international relations
Political theory and Indian politics Meaning and approaches of political theory
Theory of states
Liberal theory
Neo-liberal theory
Marxist theory
Pluiralist theory
Post-colonial and feminist theory
Conceptions of justice with special reference to rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques
Social, political and economic
Relationship between equality and freedom
Affirmative action
Meaning and theories
Different kinds of rights
Concept of human rights
Classical and contemporary theories
Different models of democracy
Participatory and deliberative
Concept of power
Ideology and legitimacy
Political ideologies
Gandhism and feminism
Indian political thought
Arthashastra and buddhist traditions
Solid state physics, devices and electronics Sir syed ahmed khan
Sri aurobindo
M. k. gandhi
B. r. ambedkar
M. n. roy
Western political thought
John s. mill
Hannah arendt
Indian government and politics Indian nationalism
Political strategies of india’s freedom struggle
Constitutionalism to mass satyagraha
Civil disobedience
Militant and revolutionary movements
Peasant and workers movements
Perspectives on indian national movement
Liberal, socialist and marxist
Radical humanist and dalit
Making of the indian constitution
Legacies of the british rule
Different social and political perspectives
Salient features of the indian constitution
The preamble
Fundamental rights and duties
Directive principles
Parliamentary system and amendment procedures
Judicial review and basic structure doctrine
Principal organs of the union government
Envisaged role and actual working of the executive
Legislatur and supreme court
Principal organs of the state government
Legislature and high courts
Grassroots democracy
Panchayati raj and municipal government
Significance of 73rd and 74th amendments
Grassroot movements
Statutory institutions/commissions
Election commission
Comptroller and auditor general
Finance commission
Union public service commission
National commission for scheduled castes
National commission for scheduled tribes
National commission for women
National human rights commission
National commission for minorities
National backward classes commission
Constitutional provisions
Changing nature of centre
State relations
Integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations
Inter-state disputes
Planning and economic development
Nehruvian and gandhian perspectives
Role of planning and public sector
Green revolution
Land reforms and agrarian relations
Liberalization and economic reforms
Caste, religion and ethnicity in indian politics
Party system
National and regional political parties
Ideological and social bases of parties
Patterns of coalition politics
Pressure groups
Trends in electoral behaviour
Changing socio-economic profile of legislators
Social movement
Civil liberties and human rights movements
Women’s movements
Environmentalist movements
Comparative political analysis and international politics Comparative political analysis and international politics
Comparative politics
Nature and major approaches
Political economy and political sociology perspectives
Limitations of the comparative method
State in comparative perspective
Characteristics and changing nature of the state in capitalist and socialist economies
Advanced industrial and developing societies
Politics of representation and participation
Political parties
Pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies
Responses from developed and developing societies
Approaches to the study of international relations
Functionalist and systems theory
Key concepts in international relations
National interest
Security and power
Balance of power and deterrence
Transational actors and collective security
World capitalist economy and globalisation
Changing international political order
Rise of super powers
Strategic and ideological bipolarity
Arms race and cold war
Nuclear threat
Non-aligned movement
Aims and achievements
Collapse of the soviet union
Unipolarity and american hegemony
Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world
Evolution of the international economic system
From brettonwoods to wto
Socialist economies and the cmea
Third world demand for new international economic order
Globalisation of the world economy
United Nations
Envisaged role and actual record
Specialized un agencies
Aims and functioning
Need for un reforms
Regionalisation of world politics
Contemporary global concerns
Human rights
Gender justice terrorism
Nuclear proliferation
India and the world Indian foreign policy
Determinants of foreign policy
The institutions of policy-making
Continuity and change
India’s contribution to the non-alignment movement different phases
Current role
India and south asia
Regional co-operation
Past performance and future prospects
South asia as a free trade area
India’s “look east” policy
Impediments to regional co-operation
River water disputes
Illegal cross border migration
Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies
Border disputes
India and the global south
Relations with africa and latin america
Leadership role in the demand for nieo and wto negotiations
India and the global centres of power
China and russia
India and the un system
Role in un peace-keeping
Demand for permanent seat in the security council
India and the nuclear question
Changing perceptions and policy
Recent developments in indian foreign policy
India’s position on the recent crises in afghanistan
Iraq and west asia
Growing relations with us and isreal
Vision of a new world order
Introduction Definition of psychology
Historical antecedents of psychology and trends in the 21st centrury
Psychology and scientific methods
Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
Application of psychology to societal problems
Methods of psychology Types of research
Diagnostic and prognostic
Methods of research
Case-study and experiments
Characteristics of experimental design and nonexperimental designs
Quasi-experimental designs
Focussed group discussions
Brain storming
Grounded theory approach
Research methods Major steps in psychological research
Fundamental versus applied research
Methods of data collection
Research designs
Application of statistical techniques and item response theory
Development of human behaviour Growth and development
Principles of development
Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour
Influence of cultural factors in socialization
Life span development
Development tasks
Promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span
Sensation, attention and perception Sensation
Concepts of threshold
Absolute and difference thresholds
Signal, detection and vigilance
Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus
Definition and concept of perception
Biological factors in perception
Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences
Perceptual defence-factor influencing space and depth perception
Size estimation and perceptual readiness
The plasticity of perception
Extrasensory perception
Culture and perception
Subliminal perception
Learning Concepts and theories of learning
The processes of extinction
Discrimination and generalisation
Programmed learning
Probability learning
Self instructional learning
Types and the schedules of reinforcement
Avoidance and punishment
Modelling and social learning
Memory Encoding and remembering
Shot-term memory
Long-term memory
Sensory memory
Iconic memory
Echoic memory
The multistore model
Levels of processing
Organization and mnemonic techniques to improve memory
Theories of forgetting
Interference and retrieval failure
Anterograde and retrograde
Thinking and problem solving Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
Concept formation processes
Information processing
Reasoning and problem solving
Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving
Methods of problem solving
Creative thinking and fostering creativity
Factors influencing decision making and judgement
Recent trends
Motivation and emotion Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
Measurement of motivation and emotion
Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
Emotional competence and the related issues
Intelligence and aptitude Concept of intelligence and aptitude
Nature and theories of intelligence
Gulford vernon
Sternberg and j.p. das
Emotional Intelligence
Social intelligence
Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
Concept of i q deviation i q, constancy of i q
Measurement of multiple intelligence
Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
Personality Definition and concept of personality
Theories of personality
Measurement of personality
The indian approach to personality
Training for personality development
Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory
The notion of self in different traditions
Attitudes, values and interests Definitions of attitudes
Values and interests
Components of attitudes
Formation and maintenance of attitudes
Measurement of attitudes
Theories of attitude changes
Strategies for fostering values
Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
Changing other’s behaviour
Theories of attribution
Recent trends
Language and communication Human language
Structure and linguistic hierarchy
Language acquisition
Critical period hypothesis
Theories of language development
Skinner and chomsky
Process and types of communication
Effective communication training
Issues and perspectives in modern contemporary psychology Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing
Artificial intelligence
Study of consciousnessleep-wak schedules
Stimulus deprivation
Hypnotic/drug induced states
Extrasensory perception
Intersensory perception
Simulation studies
Psychological measurement of individual differences The nature of individual differences
Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests
Types of psychological tests
Use of psychological tests
Misuse and limitation of psychological tests
Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests
Psychological wellbeing and mental disorders Concept of health-iill health positive health
Well being casual factores in mental disorders
Factors influencing positive health
Factors influencing well being
Lifestyle and quality of life
Happiness disposition
Therapeutic approaches Psychodynamic therapies
Behaviour therapies
Client centered therapy
Cognitive therapies
Indigenous therapies
Biofeedback therapy
Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill
Fostering mental health
Work psychology and organisational behaviour Personnel selection and training
Use of psychological tests in the industry
Training and human resource development
Theories of work motivation
Adam equity theory
Porter and lawler
Leadership and participatory management
Advertising and marketing
Stress and its management
Consumer psychology
Managerial effectiveness
Transformational leadersip
Senitivity training
Power and politics in organizations
Application of psychology to educational field Psychological principles underlying effective teaching
Learning process
Learning styles
Learning disabled and their training
Training for improving memory and better academic achievement
Personality development and value education
Vocational guidance and career counselling
Use of psychological tests in educational institutions
Effective strategies in guidance programmes
Community psychology Definition and concept of community psychology
Use of small groups in social action
Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems
Group decision making and leadership for social change
Effective strategies for social change
Rehabilitation psychology Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes
Role of psychologists
Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically
Mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons
Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse
Juvenile delinquency
Criminal behaviours
Rehabilitation of victims of violence
Rehabilitation of hiv/aids victims
The role of social agencies
Application of psychology to disadvantaged groups The concepts of disadvantaged
Deprivation social
Physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups
Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development
Relative and prolonged deprivation
Psychological problem of social integration The concept of social integration
The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice
Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and outgroup
Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices
Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices
Measures to achieve social integration
Application of psychology in information technology and mass media The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists
Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of it and mass media
Distance learning through it and mass media
Entrepreneurship through e-commerce
Multilevel marketing
Impact of tv and fostering value through it and mass media
Psychological consequences of recent developments in information technology
Psychology and economic development Achievement motivation and economic development
Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour
Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development
Consumer rights and consumer awareness
Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entreprenures
Application of psychology to environment and related fields Environmental psychology effects of noise
Pollution and crowding
Population psychology
Psychological consequence of population explosion and high population density
Motivating for small family norms
Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment
Application of psychology in other fields Military psychology
Devising psycological tests for defence personnel for use in selection
Training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting positive health
Human engineering in defence
Sports psychology
Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and sports
Persons participating in individual and team games
Media influences on pro and anti-social behaviour
Psychology of terrorism
Psychology of gender Issues of discrimination
Management of diversity
Glass ceiling effect
Self-fulfilling prophesy
Women and indian society
Public administration
Introduction Meaning of indian society
Scope and significance of public administration
Wilson’s vision of public administration
Evolution of the discipline and its present status
New public administration
Public choice approach
Challenges of liberalization
Challenges of privatisation
Challenges of globalisation
Good governance
Concept and application
New public management
Administrative thought Scientific management and scientific management movement
Classical theory
Weber’s bureaucratic model its critique and post
Weberian developments
Dynamic administration
Human relations school
Functions of the executive
Simon’s decision-making theory
Participative management
Administrative behaviour Process and techniques of decision-making
Motivation theories content
Process and contemporary
Theories of leadership
Traditional and modem
Organisations Theories systems
Structure and forms
Ministries and departments
Boards and commissions
Ad hoc and advisory bodies
Headquarters and field relationships
Regulatory authorities
Public-private partnerships
Accountability and control Concepts of accountability and control
Executive and judicial control over administration
Citizen and administration
Role of media
Interest groups
Voluntary organizations
Civil society
Citizen’s charters
Right to information
Social audit
Administrative law Meaning
Scope and significance
Dicey on administrative law
Delegated legislation
Administrative Tribunals
Comparative public administration Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems
Administration and politics in different countries
Current status of comparative public administration
Ecology and administration
Riggsian models and their critique
Development dynamics Concept of development
Changing profile of development administration
Anti-development thesis
Bureaucracy and development
Strong state versus the market debate
Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries
Women and development the self-help group movement
Personnel administration Importance of human resource development
Career advancement
Position classification
Performance appraisal
Pray and service conditions
Employer and employee relations
Grievance redressal mechanism
Code of conduct
Administrative ethics
Public policy Models of policy-making and their critique
Processes of conceptualisation
Evaluation and review and their limitations
State theories and public policy formulation
Techniques of administrative improvement Organisation and methods
Work study and work management
E-governance and information technology
Management aid tools like network analysis
Financial administration Monetary and fiscal policies
Public borrowings and public debt budgets types and forms
Budgetary process
Financial accountability
Accounts and audit
Evolution of Indian administration Kautilya arthashastra
Mughal administration
Legacy of british rule in politics and administration indianization of public services
Revenue administration
District administration
Local self government
Philosophical and constitutional framework of government Salient features and value premises
Political culture
Bureaucracy and democracy
Bureaucracy and development
Public sector undertakings Public sector in modern india
Forms of public sector undertakings
Problems of autonomy
Accountability and control
Impact of liberalization and privatization
Union government and administration Executive
Judiciary and structure
Functions work processes
Recent trends
Intra-governmental relations
Cabinet secretariat
Prime minister’s office
Central secretariat
Ministries and departments
Attached offices
Field organizations
Plans and priorities Machinery of planning
Role, composition and functions of the planning commission and the national development council
Indicative planning
Process of plan formulation at union and state levels
Constitutional amendments and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice
State government and administration Union and state administrative
Legislative and financial relations
Role of the finance commission
Chief minister
Council of ministers
Chief secretary
State secretariat
District administration since independence Changing role of the collector
Union-state-local relations
Imperatives of development management and law and order administration
District administration and democratic decentralization
Civil services Constitutional position
Constitutional structure
Training and capacity building
Good governance initiatives
Code of conduct and discipline
Staff associations
Political rights
Grievance redressal mechanism
Civil service neutrality
Civil service activism
Financial management Budget as a political instrument
Parliamentary control of public expenditure
Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area
Accounting techniques
Role of controller general of accounts and comptroller and auditor general of india
Administrative reforms since independence Major concerns
Important committees and commissions
Reforms in financial management and human resource development
Problems of implementation
Rural development Institutions and agencies since independence
Rural development programmes
Foci and strategies
Decentralization and panchayati raj
73rd constitutional amendment
Urban local government Municipal governance
Main features of municipal governance
Structures of municipal governance
Finance and problem areas
74th constitutional amendment
Global-local debate
New localism
Development dynamics
Politics and administration with special reference to city management
Law and order administration British legacy
National police commission
Investigative agencies
Role of central and state agencies including para military forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism
Criminalisation of politics and administration
Police-public relations
Reforms in police
Significant issues in Indian administration Values in public service
Regulatory commissions
National human rights commission
Problems of administration in coalition regimes
Citizen administration interface
Corruption and administration
Disaster management
Sociology paper I
The discipline of sociology Modernity and social changes in europe and emergence of sociology
Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences
Sociology and common sense
Sociology as science Science, scientific method and critique
Major theoretical strands of research methodology
Positivism and its critique
Fact value and objectivity
Non-positivist methodologies
Research methods and analysis Qualitative and quantitative methods
Techniques of data collection
Sociological thinkers Karl marx
Historical materialism
Mode of production
Class struggle
Emile durkhteim
Division of labour
Social fact
Religion and society
Max weber
Social action
Ideal types
Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism
Talcolt parsons
Social system
Pattern variables
Robert k. merton
Latent and manifest functions
Conformity and deviance
Reference groups
Self and identity
Stratification and mobility Concepts
Theories of social stratification
Structural functionalist theory
Marxist theory
Weberian theory
Social stratification of class
Status groups
Ethnicity and race
Social mobility
Open and closed systems
Types of mobility
Sources and causes of mobility
Works and economic life Social organization of work in different types of society
Slave society
Feudal society
Industrial capitalist society
Formal and informal organization of work
Labour and society
Politics and society Sociological theories of power
Power elite
Pressure groups and political parties
Social movements
Collective action
Religion and society Sociological theories of religion
Types of religious practices
Religion in modern society
Religion and science
Religious revivalism
Systems of kinship Family
Types and forms of family
Lineage and descent
Patriarchy and sexual division of labour
Contemporary trends
Social change in modern society Sociological theories of social change
Development and dependency
Agents of social change
Education and social change
Science, technology and social change
Sociology paper II
Introducing Indian society Perspectives on the study of indian society
Structural functionalism
Marxist sociology
Impact of colonial rule on indian society
Social background of indian nationalism
Modernization of indian tradition
Protests and movements during the colonial period
Social reforms
Social structure Rural and agrarian social structure
The idea of indian village and village studies
Agrarian social structure
Evolution of land tenure system
Land Reforms
Caste system
Perspectives on the study of caste systems
G. s. ghurye
M. n. srinivas
Louis dumont
Andre beteille
Features of caste system
Forms and perspectives of untouchability
Tribal communities in india
Definitional problems
Geographical spread
Colonial policies and tribes
Issues of integration and autonomy
Social classes in india
Agrarian class structure
Industrial class structure
Middle classes in india
Systems of kinship in india
Lineage and descent in india
Types of kinship systems
Family and marriage in india
Household dimensions of the family
Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour
Religion and society
Religious communities in india
Problems of religious minorities
Social changes in India Visions of social change in india
Idea of development planning and mixed economy
Constitution, law and social change
Education and social change
Rural and agrarian transformation in india
Programmes of rural development
Community development programme
Poverty alleviation schemes
Green revolution and social change
Changing modes of production in indian agriculture
Problems of rural labour
Industrialization and urbanisation in india
Evolution of modern industry in india
Growth of urban settlements in india
Working class
Structure of working class
Growth of working class
Class mobilization
Informal sector
Child labour
Slums and deprivation in urban areas
Politics and society
Nation, democracy and citizenship
Political parties
Pressure groups
Social and political elite
Regionalism and decentralization of power
Social movements in modern india
Peasants and farmers movements
Women’s movement
Backward classes and dalit movements
Environmental Movements
Ethnicity and identity movements
Population dynamics
Population size and growth
Composition and distribution
Components of population growth
Components of population growth: birth
Components of population growth: death
Components of population growth: migration
Population policy and family planning
Emerging issues
Sex ratios
Child and infant mortality
Reproductive health
Challenges of social transformation
Crisis of development
Environmental problems and sustainability
Deprivation and inequalities
Violence against women
Caste conflicts
Ethnic conflicts
Religious revivalism
Social changes in India Illiteracy and disparities in education
Probability Sample space and events
Probability measure and probability space
Random variable as a measurable function
Distribution function of a random variable
Discrete and continuous
Type random variable
Probability mass function
Probability Density Function
Vector-valued random variable
Marginal and conditional distributions
Expectation and moments of a random variable
Conditional expectation
Convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution and in probability
In path mean and almost everywhere
Their criteria and interrelations
Chebyshev’s inequality and khintchine’s weak law of large numbers
Strong law of large numbers and kolmogoroffs theorems
Probability generating function
Moment generating function
Characteristic function
Inversion theorem
Linderberg and levy forms of central limit theorem
Standard discrete and continuous probability distributions
Statistical inference Consistency
Ancillary statistics
Factorization theorem
Exponential family of distribution and its properties
Uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimation
Rao blackwell and lehmann
Scheffe theorems
Cramer-rao inequality for single parameter
Estimation by methods of moments
Maximum likelihood
Least squares
Minimum chisquare and modified minimum chisquare
Properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators
Asymptotic efficiency
Prior and posterior distributions
Loss function
Risk function and minimax estimator
Bayes estimators
Non-randomised and randomised tests
Critical function
Mp tests
Neyman-pearson lemma
Ump tests
Monotone likelihood ratio
Similar and unbiased tests
Umpu tests for single paramet likelihood ratio test and its asymptotic distribution
Confidence bounds and its relation with tests
Kolmogorov’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency
Sign test and its optimality
Wilcoxon signedranks test and its consistency
Smirnov two sample test
Run test
Whitney test and median test
Their consistency and asymptotic normality
Wald’s sprt and its properties
Oc and asn functions for tests regarding parameters for bernoulli
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions
Normal and exponential distributions
Wald’s fundamental identity
Linear inference and multivariate analysis Linear statistical models
Theory of least squares and analysis of variance
Gauss-markoff theory
Normal equations
Least squares estimates and their precision
Test of significance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in oneway
Two-way and three-way classified data
Regression analysis
Linear regression
Curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials
Multiple regression
Multiple and partial correlations
Estimation of variance and covariance components
Multivariate normal distribution
Discriminant analysis
Canonical correlations
Principal component analysis
Sampling theory and design of experiments An outline of fixed-population and super-population approaches
Distinctive features of finite population sampling
Propability sampling designs
Simple random sampling with and without replacement
Stratified random sampling
Systematic sampling and its efficacy
Cluster sampling
Twostage and multi-stage sampling
Ratio and regression methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables
Two-phase sampling
Probability proportional to size sampling with and without replacement
The hansen-hurwitz and the horvitz-thompson estimators
Non-negative variance estimation with reference to the horvitz-thompson estimator
Non-sampling errors
Fixed effects model random and mixed effects models
Lsd and their analyses
Incomplete block designs
Concepts of orthogonality and balance
Missing plot technique
Confounding in factorial experiments
Split-plot and simple lattice designs
Transformation of data duncan’s multiple range test
Industrial statistics Process and product control
General theory of control charts
Different types of control charts for variables and attributes, x, r, s, p, np and charts
Cumulative sum chart
Multiple and sequential sampling plans for attributes
Oc curves
Asn curves
Aoq and ati curves
Concepts of producer’s and consumer’s risks
Ltpd and aoql
Sampling plans for variables
Use of dodge-romin tables
Concept of reliability
Failure rate and reliability functions
Reliability of series and parallel systems and other simple configurations
Renewal density and renewal function
Failure models
Problems in life testing
Censored and truncated experiments for exponential models
Optimization techniques Different types of models in operations research
Their construction and general methods of solution
Simulation and monte-carlo methods formulation of linear programming problem
Simple lp model and its graphical solution
The simplex procedure
The two-phase metbod and the m-technique with artificial variables
The duality theory of lp and its economic interpretation
Sensitivity analysis
Transpotation and assignment problems
Rectangular games
Two-person zerosum games
Methods of solution
Replacement of failing or deteriorating items
Group and individual replacement policies
Concept of scientific inventory management and analytical structure of inventory problems
Simple models with deterministic and stochastic demand with and without lead time
Storage models with particular reference to dam type
Homogeneous discrete-time markov chains
Transition probability matrix
Classification of states and ergodic theorems
Homogeneous continuous-time markov chains
Poisson process
Elements of queuing theory
M/mi queues
M/m/k queues
G/ m/l queues
M/g/1 queues
Solution of statistical problems on computers using well-known statistical software packages like spss
Quantitative economics and official statistics Determination of trend
Seasonal and cyclical components
Box-jenkins method
Tests for stationary series
Arima models and determination of orders of autoregressive and moving average components
Commonly used index numbers
Laspeyre’s, paasche’s and fisher’s ideal index numbers
Cham-base index number
Uses and limitations of index numbers
Index number of wholesale prices
Consumer price
Agricultural production and industrial production
Test fot index numbers
Factor-reversal and circular
General linear model
Ordinary least square and generalized least squares methods of estimation
Problem of multi-collinearity
Consequences and solutions of multicollinearity
Autocorrelation and its consequences
Heteroscedasticity of disturbances and its testing
Test for independence of disturbances concept of structure and model for simultaneous equations
Problem of identification-rank and order conditions of identifiability
Two-stage least sauare method of estimation
Present official statistical system in india relating to
Industrial Production
Trade and prices
Methods of collection of official statistics
Their reliability and limitations
Principal publications containing such statistics
Various official agencies responsible for data collection and their main functions
Demography and psychometry Demographic data from census
Nss other surveys
Their limitations and uses
Construction and uses of vital rates and ratios
Measures of fertility
Reproduction rates
Morbidity rate
Standardized death rate
Complete and abridged life tables
Construction of life tables from vital statistics and census returns
Uses of life tables
Logistic and other population growth curves
Fitting a logistic curve
Population projection
Stable population
Quasi-stable population
Techniques in estimation of demographic parameters
Standard classification by cause of death
Health surveys and use of hospital statistics
Methods of standardisation of scales and tests
Standard scores
Percentile scores
Intelligence quotient and its measurement and uses
Validity and reliability of test scores and its determination
Use of factor analysis and path analysis in psychometry
Non-chordata and chordata Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses
Acoelomate and coelomate
Protostomes and deuterostomes
Bilateria and radiata
Status of protista
Onychophora and hemichordata
(ii) Plasmodium vivax-life-cycle, malaria therapy and control
General features and life history of paramaecium
Plasmodium and leishmania
Canal system and reproduction
Defensive structures and their mechanism
Coral reefs and their formation
General features and life history of obelia and aurelia
Parasitic adaptation
General features and life history of fasciola and taenia and their pathogenic symptoms
General features
Life history
Parasitic adaptation of ascaris and wuchereria
Coelom and metamerism
Modes of life in polychaetes
General features and life history of nereis
Earthworm and leach
Larval forms and parasitism in crustacea
Vision and respiration in arthropods
Modification of mouth
Parts in insects
Metapmor phosis in insect and its hormonal regulation
Socialbehaviour ofapis and termites
General features and life history of lamellidens
Pila and sepia
Torsion and detorsion in gastropods
Larval forms
General features and life history of asterias
Origin of chordates
General features and life history of branchiostoma and herdmania
Locomotion and migration
Origin of tetrapods
Parental care
Origin of reptiles
Skull types
Status of sphenodon and crocodiles
Origin of birds
Flight adaptation
Origin of mammals
General features of egg laying mammals
Aquatic mammals and primates
Endocrine glands and their interrelationships
Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates
Ecology Biosphere
Concept of biosphere
Biogeochemical cycles
Human induced changes in atmosphere including green house effect
Ecological succession
Biomes and ecotones
Community ecology
Concept of ecosystem
Structure and function of ecosystem
Types of ecosystem
Ecological adaptation
Population dynamics
Population stabilization
Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources
Wildlife of india
Remote sensing for sustainable development
Environmental biodegradation
Pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention
Ethology Behaviour
Sensory filtering
Sign stimuli
Instinct, learning and memory
Role of hormones in drive
Role of pheromones in alarm spreading
Predator detection
Predator tactics
Social hierarchies in primates
Social organization in insects
Biological rhythms
Biological clock
Seasonal and circadian rhythms
Methods of studying animal behaviour including sexual conflict
Kinship and altruism
Economic zoology Apiculture
Lac culture
Carp culture
Pearl culture
Prawn culture
Major infectious and communicable diseases their vectors
Pathogens and prevention
Cattle and livestock diseases
Their pathogen and vectors
Pests of sugar cane
Oil seed and rice
Transgenic animals
Medical biotechnology
Human genetic disease and genetic counselling
Gene therapy
Forensic biotechnology
Biostatistics Designing of experiments
Null hypothesis
Distribution and measure of central tendency
Chi square
Instrumentation methods Spectrophotometer
Phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy
Radioactive tracer
Ultra centrifuge
Fish and chromosome painting
Electron microscopy
Cell biology Structure and function of cell and its organelles
Cell division
Mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus
Chromosome movement chromosome type ploytene and lambrush
Organization of chromatin
Cell cycle regulation
Nucleic acid topology
Dna motif
DNA replication
Rna processing
Protein foldings and transport
Genetics Modern concept of gene
Split gene
Genetic regulation
Sex chromosomes and their evolution
Sex determination in drosophila and man
Mendel’s laws of inheritance
Multiple alleles
Genetics of blood groups
Pedigree analysis
Hereditary diseases in man
Mutations and mutagenesis
Recombinant DNA Technology
Artificial chromosomes as vectors
Dna cloning and whole animal cloning
Gene regulation and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Signal molecules
Cell death
Defects in signaling pathway and consequences
Rflp, rapd and aflf and application of rflp in dna finger-printing
Ribozyme technologies
Human genome project
Genomics and protomics
Evolution Theories of origin of life
Theories of evolution
Natural selection
Role of mutation in evolution
Evolutionary patterns
Molecular drive
Isolation and speciation
Evolution of horse
Elephant and man using fossil data
Hardy-weinberg law
Continental drift and distribution of animals
Systematics Zoological nomenclature
International code
Molecular taxonomy and biodiversity
Biochemistry Structure and role of carbohydrates
Structure and role of fats
Structure and role of fatty acids
Structure and role of cholesterol
Structure and role of proteins and amino-acids
Structure and role of nucleic acids
Glycolysis and krebs cycle
Oxidation and reduction
Oxidative phosphorylation
Energy conservation and release
Cycl cyclic amp
Its structure and role
Hormone classification
Biosynthesis and functions
Types and mechanisms of action
Vitamins and co-enzymes
Immunoglobulin and immunity
Physiology Composition and constituents of blood
Blood groups and rh factor in man
Factors and mechanism of coagulation
Iron metabolism
Acid-base balance
Thermo regulation
Types and role in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Digestion and absorption
Role of salivary glands
Role of liver
Role of pancreas and intestinal glands
Nephron and regulation of urine formation
Osmo-regulation and excretory product
Types of muscles
Mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles
Effects of exercise on muscles
Nerve impulse
Its conduction and synaptic transmission
Vision, hearing and olfaction in man
Physiology of reproduction puberty and menopause in human
Developmental biology Gametogenesis
Composition of semen
In vitro and in vivo capacitation of mammalian sperm
Morphogenesis and morphogen
Establishment of body axes formation
Fate map
Gestulation in frog and chick
Genes in development in chick homeotic genes
Development of eye and heart
Placenta in mammals
Cell lineage
Cell to cell interaction
Genetic and induced teratogenesis
Role of thyroxine in control of metamorphosisin amphibia
Paedogenesis and neoteny
Cell death
Cell aging
Developmental genes in man
In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer
Stem cells
Types and their use in human welfare
Biogenetic law

UPSC Civil Services Exam 2019 Exam Pattern

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Exam Pattern

• The Preliminary examination of Civil Services consists of two papers – General Studies Paper I and II.
• The test booklet carries objective type multiple choice questions.
• The General Studies Paper I carries total 100 questions while there are 80 questions in Paper II.
• Total marks of preliminary exam was 400. Each paper will carry 200 marks.
• Negative marks for wrong answer will be 0.33.
• The language of question paper of Civil Services preliminary exam will be Hindi and English.
• Each paper will be held for two hours.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains Exam Pattern

• The main exam of Civil Services consists of 9 conventional Essay type papers.
• Two papers – A (Indian Language) and B (English) will be qualifying in nature.
• Paper I to VII are compulsory papers.
• The test carries total 1750 marks.
• There will be 26 optional subjects in main examination as per Civil Services
• Each paper of UPSC Civil Services mains will be of 3 hours
• The main examination assesses the overall intellectual traits of candidates.
• The questions of General Studies (Paper II to V) tests candidate’s general awareness about relevant issues.
• Questions of optional papers (Paper VI to VII) will be degree level.
• The standard of papers A and B will be of matriculation level.

UPSC releases Civil Services admit card online separately for  Preliminary, Main and Personality Test. The hard copy of the admit card is not sent to candidates by post, therefore, they are required to download the same online. Candidates have to download Civil Services admit card either by roll number or registration number. The admit card carries details like name, roll number, photograph, signature, details of exam centre, date and time of the exam. After downloading UPSC Civil Services admit card, candidates should check the details carefully. Along with the admit card, candidates are required to carry photo-identity proof and two passport size photographs to the examination centre. No candidates are allowed to appear for the exam without the admit card.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Admit Card

Civil Services admit card for prelims has been issued for candidates who had successfully registered for the exam. Candidates can download their UPSC Civil Services admit card 2019 for the Prelims exam from May 1 to June 2. 

UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains Admit Card

Civil Services admit card for mains exam is issued  on August 30, 2019. Only those candidates are able to download Civil Services admit card for mains who have qualified the preliminary exam.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Exam Centers

State City
Uttar Pradesh Agra
Gautam Budh Nagar
Rajasthan Ajmer
Gujarat Ahmedabad
Mizoram Aizawl
Andhra Pradesh Anantapur
Maharashtra Aurangabad
Karnataka Bengaluru
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
Chhattisgarh Bilaspur
Punjab Chandigarh
Tamil Nadu Chennai
Odisha Cuttack
Haryana Gurgaon
Telangana Hyderabad
Manipur Imphal
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu
Assam Jorhat
Kerala Kochi
Nagaland Kohima
West Bengal Kolkata
Goa Panaji
Bihar Patna
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair
Puducherry Puducherry
Jharkhand Ranchi
Meghalaya Shillong
Himachal Pradesh Shimla
Uttarakhand Dehradun
Delhi New Delhi
Sikkim Gangtok

UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains Exam Centers

State City
Gujarat Ahmedabad
Mizoram Aizawl
Uttar Pradesh Allahabad
Karnataka Bengaluru
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
Chandigarh Chandigarh
Tamil Nadu Chennai
Odisha Cuttack
Uttarakhand Dehradun
Delhi New Delhi
Telangana Hyderabad
Rajasthan Jaipur
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu
West Bengal Kolkata
Maharashtra Mumbai
Bihar Patna
Chhattisgarh Raipur
Jharkhand Ranchi
Meghalaya Shillong
Himachal Pradesh Shimla
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
Andhra Pradesh Vijayawada

Documents Required at Exam

  • Admit card
  • Aadhaar card
  • Driving license
  • Passport
  • Voter ID
  • Two passport size photographs

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) releases the answer key of Civil Services after completion of recruitment process. The answer key will be available online in PDF format all sets of test booklets provided to candidates during exam. Comparing the answers from Civil Services answer key, candidates can calculate their probable score based on the number of answers marked correctly and incorrectly.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Answer Key

Civil Services answer key for preliminary exam will be released for both General Studies Paper I and II. UPSC Civil Services answer key will be available for all sets - A, B, C, D of both the papers. The answer key of Civil Services Prelims will also be released by coaching institutes. The exam conducting authority, UPSC, will release Civil Services answer key for preliminary exam after declaration of final result. 

Civil Services result is announced in three phases – Preliminary, Main and Final. The result of all the stages is declared online. UPSC first declares Civil Services result of Preliminary examination followed by the announcement of result for mains exam. The final result is declared after completion of Personality Test. The result PDF file carries the roll numbers of qualified candidates. UPSC also releases the scores of candidates of written examinations and Interview/Personality Test after completion of selection process.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Result

Civil Services result of Preliminary exam is declared online. Based on Civil Services result of preliminary examination, candidates are selected for mains exam. The marks obtained by candidates in the preliminary examination are not counted for determining the final merit list. Candidates selected for the mains exam will be 12 to 13 times the number of vacancies. Only those candidates who will be declared qualified in the preliminary examination will be only eligible to appear for the main exam. The aggregate score of preliminary examination will be calculated based on the number of correct answers in General Studies Paper I and II after deducting the marks for wrong answers.

Civil Services Cutoff refers to the minimum qualifying marks secured by the last recommended candidates as per categories at different stages of exam. The cutoff will be released by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) after the announcement of final result. The commission will decide separate cutoff scores for Preliminary, Mains and Final allotment. Civil Services cutoff will be fixed by UPSC to select deserving candidates for the recruitment exam.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Preliminary Cutoff

Civil Services cutoff of preliminary exam will be decided based on the General Studies Paper I. The Paper II will be qualifying in nature.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains Cutoff

The cutoff of Civil Services mains is calculated based on the seven compulsory papers as two papers are qualifying in nature. Candidates will be required to secure 25% each in two qualifying papers to pass the exam. However, there will be sectional cut off of 10% in the compulsory papers too. Based on the Civil Services cutoff of mains exam, candidates will be selected for the Personality Test. The final cutoff of Civil Service will be determined based on mains exam and Personality Test. On the basis of final Civil Services cutoff, allotment of candidates will be done for various services.

UPSC Civil Services Exam 2019 Selection Process

The selection procedure of Civil Services comprises the following stages -

Preliminary Exam – Civil Services preliminary examination will be held for all candidates registering successfully for the exam. This stage will be conducted to screen candidates for the mains exam. The marks obtained in the preliminary stage will not be counted for the final merit list.

Mains Exam – The mains exam will be conducted for candidates selected based on the marks of preliminary exam. Candidates 12 to 13 times the number of vacancies will be selected for the mains exam. The papers on Indian Languages and English (Paper A and B) of Civil Services mains examination will be qualifying in nature. The marks of these papers will not counted for final ranking. Marks of candidates for Paper I to VII will be taken into consideration for final merit list.

Personality Test – In  this stage, candidates twice the number of vacancies will be selected based on their performance in the mains exam. Marks obtained by candidates in the Main exam and Personality Test will be considered for preparation of All India Merit List. Allocation of services will be done as per the candidate’s rank in the merit list and preferences of services and posts.

Documents Required at Counselling

  • Date of birth certificate or high school mark sheet with date of birth
  • Printout of e-summon letter
  • Mark sheet/certificate of class 10 and 12 examination
  • Certificate regarding degree/post-graduate/other examinations passed
  • Passport size photographs and one should attached to interview call letter
  • Character certificate
  • SC/ST/OBC categories must bring the caste/community certificate issued by the competent authority
  • Medical certificate for physically challenged candidates
  • Discharge certificate in applied under ex-servicemen
  • Aadhaar card/Passport/Pan card/Voter ID /Driving license /any other photo id card issued by the statutory authorities with affixed photograph

General Information

Questions related to UPSC Civil Services Exam

Showing 941 out of 941 Questions

how to become and ias officers

Mahima Student Expert 15th Sep, 2019


After you've completed your Class 12th and want to become an IAS officer, you need to complete any Undergraduation course first to be eligible to take the IAS exam. You can attempt the exam in the final year of your degree hence you cant start it's preparation during you degree too. There are three stages in an IAS exam- Preliminary Examination, Mains Examination and Personal Interview. The Prelims exam will include General Knowledge and Aptitude. You need to clear the prelims in order to qualify for the Mains exam. You need to choose one of the subject of your choice for the Mains paper. Hence you can choose any subject which you have an interest in.  If you choose to pursue your UG degree in any specific field, you can choose that too. Candidates who clear the Mains exam sit for the Interview. And the final selection is done on the basis of merit in mains exam as well as the Interview.

Best of luck


can you help me for ias preparation

Gehna Chawla 14th Sep, 2019

Hello Jai,

Here are some tips which you can follow to prepare for your IAS exam ;

  1. Management of time is very important.  Make a timetable which you can follow on daily basis.
  2. First prioritize your subjects . Study those subjects first which you feel are hard for you to study and then to skip to the easier ones.
  3. Study from only those books which have been recommended.
  4. you can go for mock test series which will help you to analyse your mistakes and for practice as well.
  5. Try to read Newspaper daily and select the optional subject which matches with your interest otherwise you'll be start feeling bored after 2-3 months.
  6. Learn to utilise your spare time.
  7. writing with speed is very important in an IAS exam so make sure you write and learn or make notes which will make your studies even easier.
  8. You can go through the toppers reviews and interviews about the difficulty of the paper, how to tackle them, learn from their mistakes.

all the best

Thankyou, I hope it helps, Feel free to approach for further queries.


Hlo We have to prepare for UPSC.So is there any IAS coaching along with graduation.

Apoorva Student Expert 14th Sep, 2019
Hello dear student,
There are many coaching institutes who provide coaching for upsc and other competitive exams. It depends upon where do you live, I mean the area where you live . You want your coaching there or some other state. Because there are too many good coaching institutes but where you want to take admission it entirely depends upon you. So kindly mention your area and we will provide you best coaching institutes of that Area. I hope this was helpful
Best wishes

mene abi 12 ki h arts se mere presents 91.8 h mene govt college hissar me admissions liya bha subject nhi mile fir mene sirsa said dabwali admission le liya h m mene du me from apply kiya tha admissions to ho GYA PR koi reason ki vjh se nhi aa pai m IAS ki teyari krna chhati hu m sc cast sw hu

Piyush Dixit 13th Sep, 2019


Your enthusiasm level to prepare for civil service is really commendable at this early age. i would suggest to give more focus on your academic education and along with that prepare for civil services exam. Click Here for more information regarding UPSC exam.


bbose ke certificate ka value central job bpsc ya upsc me hai ya nahi

Papeya Dubey Student Expert 12th Sep, 2019


Bihar Board of Open Schooling Examination is a recognised board, with BBOSE Certificate, you're definitely eligible to apply for any State as well as Central level jobs. So, you need not be concerned about this at all.

All the best!

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